Evolution of Medicine and Pharmacy in the World 1 - From Mesopotamia to Jundishapur

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.


The historians divided the evolution of sciences including medical and pharmaceutical sciences into three stages of Antiquity, Middle age and Modern Europe. The first stage (Antiquity) which called Paleolithic, covers all human pre-civilization (Cave-Dwelling) and before Christ terms. The second or middle stage is related to medical events of the first to sixteenth century. The third stage which coincides to modern Europe and America, was started from seventeenth century till present time. The practice of medicine and preparation of drugs accomplished by a person named “Hakim” in the antiquity age, even in medical centers such as Jundishapur, and perhaps until Avicenna time. The academy of Jundishapur is considered the most and first advance center of higher education for medicines, philosophy, theology, astronomy, and mathematics and books translation in sixth and seventh centuries. In fact, this scientific center was a pioneer in professional practice of medicine and therefore to put an end to non-academic treatment carried out by magicians and church monks. This review is presented in two parts. The first will focus on Mesopotamia to Jundishapur and the second will cover Jundishapur to Modern Europe.


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