Identifying the Factors of Resilience in Mothers Having Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Qualitative Research

Document Type : Original Article


1 student of phd in family counselling، counseling group ، shahid chamran university of Ahvaz ، Ahvaz،Iran

2 professor in department of counselling ، shahid chamran university of Ahvaz،, Ahvaz، Iran

3 Professor in department of counselling , shahid chamran university of Ahvaz , Ahvaz ,Iran

4 Professor in department of psychology , shahid chamran university of Ahvaz , Ahvaz , Iran


Introduction: The resilience in mothers having children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the factors influencing on it is an important issue which requires a comprehensive study. Apart from point of views about the negative and positive effect of having children with ADHD ,the question is why some mothers with ADHD children have much more successful performance than the others? The purpose of present study has been to identify those factors involved in resilience in mothers having children with ADHD.
Methods: In this content analysis qualitative research. Twenty three experienced resilience mothers were selected by targeted sampling through a semi-structured interview until the data were completely saturated.
Findings: By analyzing the data, four main categories and twelve sub-categories were obtained. The category of personal and psychological factors was divided into sub-categories of self-feeling, self-efficiency, sense of purposefulness, skill of problem-solving and attitudinal factors; the category of family factors was included husband support and the other family members; the category of social factors was included the interpersonal skill, social support and social awareness, spiritual powers was involved the religion belief and descriptions of Islam.
Conclusions: The results of this research help the professionals as well as healthcare and educational centers to formulate the necessary programs related to the mothers having children with ADHD given the identified factors to receive the required skills. Training those factors to the mothers having ADHD children will contribute to increase the mothers' resilience and to avoid experiencing any failures in their life.


1-Alevriadou, A., & Pavlidou, K. Teachers inter. Rsonal style and its relationship to emotions, causal attributions, and type of challenging behaviors displayed by students with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities. 2016; 20 (3), 213-227.
2-Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2014). Exceptional learners. Introduction to special education (15th ed). Boston: ALLYN & Bacon.
3-Robinson, M., & Neece, C. L. Marital satisfaction, parental stress, and child behavior problems among parents of young children with developmental delays. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2015; 8(1), 23-46.
4-Masten, A. S., & Monn, A. R. Child and family resilience: A call for integrated science, practice, and professional training: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. 2015; 64(1), 5-21.
5-Shekoohi ,Y,. Motaavaali Pour, A,. & Parand, A, (2013) 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders", Tehran Taymourzadeh Press
6-Green, S. A., Berkovits, L. D., & Baker, B. L. Symptoms and development of anxiety in children with or without intellectual disability. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2015; 44(1), 137-144.
7-Davarmanash, S, Barati, A, (2006) "Study of Cultural Factor in Accepting Special-Needs Children" ,Asfaandiar Press , Spring
8-Jansen, S. L., van der putten, A. A. & Vlaskamp, C. Parents experiences of collaborating with professionals in the support of their child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: A multiple case study. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities. 2017; 21(1), 53-67.
9-Gupta, R. k., & Kaur. H. (2010). Stress among parents of children with intellectual disability.
10-Barkely, R. A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Guilford.
11-Mash, E. J., & Barkley, R. A. (2002). Child psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
12-Marmorstin, N. R. Relationship between anxiety and externalizing disorder in youth: The influences of age and gender. Journal of Anxiety Disorder. 2006; 39, 156-167.
13-Burt, S. A., Krueger, R. F., MC Gue, M., & Iacano, W. Parent-Child conflict and the co-morbidity among childhood externalizing disorder. Journal of Archives of General Psychiatry. 2003; 60, 505-513.
14-Oshodi, YO, umeh CS, Afolabi Lesi FE, eigbike-Aideyan M, Adeyemi JD. Burden and psychological challenges in caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities in a child neurology clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities. 2014; 60(4): 226-34.
15-Kwok, S. Y., Leung, C. L., & Wong, D. F. Marital satisfaction of Chinese mothers of children with autism and intellectual disabilities in Hong Kong. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2014; 58(2), 1156-1171.
16-Hassall, R, Rose, J., & McDonald, J. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: The effects of parental congnitions in relation to child characteristics and family support, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2005; 49(6), 405-18.
17-Ungar, M. The social ecology of resilience: Addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.2011; 81 (1), 1-17.
18-Pinguart, M. Moderating effect of dispositional resilience on association between hassles and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2009; 30.1-8.
19-Izadian N., Amiri, M., Jahromi, R., & Hamidi, SH. A study of relationship between suicidal ideas, depression, resiliency, daily stresses and mental health among Tehran university students. Proscenia- Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5,1515-19.
20-Smith, B. W., Tooley, E.M., Montague, E.Q., Robinson, A. E., Cosper, C. J. & Paul G. M. The Role of resilience and purpose in life in habituation to heat and pain. The Journal or Pain. 2009; 10.5.493-5
21-White, B., Driver, S., Warren, A.M. Resilience and indicators of adjustment during rehabilitation from a spinal cord injury. Department of Kinesiology Health Promotion and Recreation. University of North Texas. Rehabilitation Psychology. 2010 55.23-32.
22-Hagh Ranjbar,F, Kakavaand, A, Borjali, A, Barmas, H.' Resilience and LIFE Quality of Mothers having Children with Mental Retardation", Health &Psychological Journal. 2011; (1)1, pp 177-178         
23-Beadle-Brown, J., Leigh, J., Whelton, B., Richardson, L., Beecham, J., Baumker, T., & Bradshaw, J. Quality of life and quality of support for people with severe intellectual disability and complex needs. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2016; 29(5), 409-421.
24-Zautra, A. J., & Sturgeon, J. A. Examining the complexities of affective experience will enhance our understanding of pain and inform new interventions designed to bolster resilience. Pain. 2016; 157(8), 1586-1587.
25-Sadeghi, M,. Raahimi pour ,H,. & Tahereh, A M. H " The Effect of Psychological   Hardiness and Resilience on Mental Health of Mothers having Children with 'Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders", Journal of  Pazhohesh& Danesh in Applied Psychology, 18th year, No 1. 2018; pp-27-30
26-Husseini Bahshtiani , S. The Effectiveness of Resilience Training on Emotion Regulation Strategies and Life Satisfaction of Female Headed Households , Journal of  Cultural Sociology Comprehensive Humanities Portal, Humanities Research Institute and  Cultural Sociological Research. 2017;  Year 7, Issue 3,p-p25-50
27-Naghavi, A. ,'A Qualitative Study of Spiritualties and Resilience from Iranian Women' Viewpoints Living In Melbourne ,Australia, Iranian Clinical Psychological & Psychiatry Journal. 2016; 21th year, No 22
28-Tajikzadeh, F. Sadeghi, R.  Raeis Karimian, F. Comparison of resilience, coping with stress, and pain catastrophizing in cancer patients and normal people, Scientific Quarterly of Anesthesia and Pain. 2017; year 7, No 1
29-Baghi, V. Baghban Karimi, E. Jafari, H. Ghanaee Ghashlagh, R. Predicting the Quality of Life of Patients With Hypertension Based on Resilience and Social Support. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. 2018; Year 5, No 6 
30-Kordestani, D. Ghamari, A. Comparing the Resilience, Life Style and Life Quality Among Cardiovascular and healthy People, Scientific &Research Quarterly of Lorestan Medical University. 2018; Year 19, No 5, p-p 71-80
31-Karimi, J. Sanjabi, A.  Karimi, P. Prediction of Life Satisfaction among the Elderly Based on Resilience and Happiness. The Elderly Psychological Periodical. 2017; Year 2, No 4, p-p 292-236
32-Izadi-avanji, F. Hasani, P. Rakhshan, M. Alavi majd, H. (2017). Structural Explanation   of Resilience in Older Adults with Chronic Condition, Periodical of Quality Research in Health Science
33-Tabar Firouzjaie, S.  Farah Mojtaba, K. Abadi, S. (2016). Developing Resilience Model Based on Identity Styles and Feelings of Failure among Married Teachers in Babol , Journal of Educational Psychology Studies,No 28
34-Sardarzadeh, F. Jian Bagheri, M. Malake, F. Resilience in Reduction of Job Stress and Job Burnout among Employees of 2- Week- Work- 2- Week- Rest Plan  of Iranian Offshore Oil, Journal of Cognitive  Psychology and Psychiatry, third year. 2017; No 4, p-p 61-70
35-Baghi Irani, Z. Kole Marzi, M. Hazari, N. The Effectiveness of Resiliency Training on Improving Nurses' Quality of Life, Journal of Nursing Management. 2017; year 5, No 3,4
36-jamshidi eini ,A. Razavi ,A. Effectiveness of resilience training on stress and psychological well-being of nurses in a military hospital in Kerman, Ibnsina Journal. 2018; year 19, No, 4,p-p 38-44
37-Mohammadi, M. (1996). Investigating Factors Affecting on Resilience in People at Risk of Drug Abuse, Doctoral Thesis, Health and Rehabilitation of Tehran University
38-Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
39-Hsieh, H. & Shannon, S. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2005; 15(9): 1277-88.
40-Mohammad pour, A. (2013).' Qualitative Research Method of Anti-Method" and Practical Procedures in Qualitative Methodology", Second volume, Tehran, Sociologists
41-Mohammadi M. (2016). Factors affecting resiliency in individuals at risk for substance abuse. Tehran: Welfare and Rehabilitaion Sciences university.
42-Sina, D., Chang-Richard, A. Wilkinson, S. & Potangaroa, R. (2019). A conceptual framework for measuring livelihood resilience: Relocation experience from Aceh, Indonesia. Journal of world development, 253-265.
43-Ye, Z. Peng, C. Zhang, H. Liang, M. Zhao, J. Sun, Z. Hu, G. Yu, Y. A biopsychosocial model of resilience for breast cancer: A preliminary study in mainland China. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2018; (36) 95-102.
44-Alim, T., Feder, A., Graves, R., Wang, Y., Weaver, J., Westphal, M., Alonso, A., Aigbogun, N., Smith, B., Doucette, J., Mellman, T., Lawson, W., & Charney, D. Trauma, resilience, and recovery in a highrisk African-American population. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008; 165, 1566˚ 1575.
45-Neustadter, S. (2010). Transpersonal mate selection: An investigation of spiritual and extraordinary factors that influence the decision to marry one partner. Dissertaion for the degree of doctor of philosophy Institute of Transpersonal psychology palo Alto.
46-Khosla, M. Resilience and health: Implications for interventions and policy making. Psychol Stud. 2017; 62(3): 233-240.
47-Walsh, F. (2006). Strengthening Family Resilience. New York: The Guilford Press.
48-Woodman, A., Mawdsley, H., & Hauser-Cram, P. Parenting stress and child behavior problems within families of children with developmental disabilities: Transactional relations across 15 years. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2015; 36, 264-276.
49-Mosko, J. & Pistole, M. Attachment and religiousness: Contributions to young adult marital attitudes and readiness. Family Journal. 2010; 18, 127-135.
50-Willoughby, B. Marital attitude trajectories across adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2010; 39, 1305-1317.
51-Rahiem, H., Krauss, S., Rahim, E. The Child Victims of the Aceh Tsunami: Stories of Resilience, Coping and Moving on with Life. Procedia Engineering. 2018; (212)1303–1310.
52-Xu, J., Ou, L. (2014). Resilience and quality of life among Wenchuan earthquake survivors: the mediating role of social support. Journal of The Royal Society for Public Health. Journal homepage:
53-Garmezy, N. Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry. 1993; 56, 127-163.
54-Skodol, A. The resilient Personality. In Reich John W., Zautra Alex J. & Stuart Hall, John. Handbook of Adult Resilience (pp. 112˚ 125). The Guilford Press. New York London. 2010.
55-Hopkins, K., Taylor, C., Zubrick, S. Psychosocial resilience and vulnerability in Western Australian.  Child Abuse & Neglect. 2019; (78) 85-95.
56-Ögtem-Young, Ö. Faith resilience: Everyday experiences. Societies. 2018; 8(1), 10.
57-Rakhshani, T., Taravatmanesh, S., Khorramdel, K., & Ebrahimi, M. Social support for earthquake victims in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Archives of psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2017; 4: 66-72.
58-Naamati, S , Maahdi pour, F, Ghobari Bonab, B. (2017)." the Sources and Factors Used by Mothers with Mental Retardation for Forgiving Others", Quarterly of Special Children, sixth year, No 33
59-Kauffman, J., & Hallahan, D. (2011). Handbook of Special Education. ERIC.
60-Almazan, J., Albougamia, A., Alamrib, MS., Coletc, P., Adolfod, C., Allene, K., Gravoso, R., Boyleg, C. Predicting patterns of disaster-related resiliency among older adult Typhoon Haiyan survivors. 35. Journal of Geriatric Nursing. 2018; (39) 629-634. 
61-Hayden, E., Durbin, C., Klein, D., & Olino, T. Maternal personality influences the relationship between maternal reports and laborator measures of child temperament. Journal of personality Assessment. 2010; 92, 586-593.
62-Van Riper, M. Families of children with Down syndrome responding to "a change in plans" with resilience. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2001; 22, 116-128.
63-Heiman, T. (2008). Parents of children with asperger syndrome or with learnin disabilities: Family enviorment and social support. Research in Developmental Disability 29. Pp 289-300.
64-Johal, S. (2015). Psycho-social recovery following earthquake disasters. Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering.
65-Mohan, R., Kulkarni, M. Resilience in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities. Psychology and Developing Societies. (2018) 30(1) 19–43.
66-Adekola, J. Resilience from a lived-experience perspective in the