Differences of the Theory of Mind (TOM) in Children who stutter

Document Type : Original Article


1 Speech Therapy Dept., Rehabilitation Sciences, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan,Iran.

2 Speech therapy, Rehabilitation Sciences, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran


Introduction: This research aimed to compare the Theory of Mind (TOM) ability in stuttering pre- school children and their normal peers and also to investigate the effect of the TOM on the stuttering severity of children that was studied in a case-control study.

Methods: The participants included pre- school children (girls and boys) who stutter and normal peers in Zahedan city. The age of children in the both groups was 6 year-old (Mean:6±0.2). Sixteen Persian language children who stutter (CWS) in a convenient sampling method with a minimum of six months of stuttering were selected. Eighteen normal peers homogeneous in terms of demographic variables were selected as a control group. To collect data, Theory of mind questionnaire was used that its validity and reliability was reported by Qumrani et al (2005).

Results: The data was analyzed by ANOVA. Results showed that the CWS received more scores than the normal children in the Theory of Mind test, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P <0.0001).

Conclusions: Findings of the current study showed that the stuttering children considered and interpreted the stimuli in a different way than the normal peers.


1-Amin Yazdi, A , Social recognition: The evolution of reasoning theory of mind in children. Educational studies and psychology,  2004 , 5, 43-66.
2-Qomrani, A. Alborz, Sh.  Khayyer,  m. A Survey on the validity and validity of the theory of mind in a group of mentally retarded and normal students in Shiraz J Psychol,2006, 10,181-199.[in Persian]
3-Islami, F. Strategies for increasing social recognition in children with intellectual infertility, Special Edu school,2003,17,3-9. .[in Persian]
4-Razza, A. R. & Blair, C. Associations among false-belief understanding, executive function, and social competence: A longitudinal analysis. J Appl Dev Psychol, 2009, 30, 332-343.
5-Ferguson, f. J., & Austin, A. J. Associations of trait and ability emotional intelligence with performance on Theory of Mind tasks in an adult sample. Person Indivi Differ,2010, 49, 411-418.
6-Abeduto, L.; Short-Meyerson K.; Dolish, J.; & Benson, G. Relationship between theory of mind and language ability in children and adolescents with intellectual disability; J Intellect Disabil Res,2004, 48, 150-159.
7-Cole, k; & Mitchell, p. Siblings in the developmental executive control and theory of mind. British Journal of Developmental Psychology ,2000,18,279-295.
8-Call, J., & Tomasello, M. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2008,12, 187-192.
9-Cebula, K; Wishart, J, Social Cognition in Children with Down Syndrome, International Review of Research in Mental Retardation,2008, 35, 43-76.
10-Antonietti, A; Liveta-Sempio, O; Marchetti, A, theory of mind language in developmental contexts, New York: Springer science media, Inc,2006.
11-Qomarani, A, A study on the transformation and comparison of the theory of mind in mild retarded children of normal children aged 7-9 years. Graduate Student of Exceptional Children's Psychology, Shiraz: Shiraz University,2005
12-Bloom, M. Theory of Mind and Emotion. Perspectives in Psychology,2003.
13-Qomarani, A. A Comparative Study of the Theory of Mind in Mentally Retarded and Normal Children in Iranian Culture, Master's Thesis, Shiraz University ,2005.
14-Wellman, H. M., & Cross, D. & Watson, J. Meta- Analysis of Theory-of-Mind Development: The Truth about False Belief. Child Development,2001, 72, 655-684.
15-Nassaian, A. The Effect of Education on the False Belief on the Attraction of the Mind Theory of   Undergraduate Students 8-11 years (persian). Master's Thesis for Psychology and Exceptional Children Education, Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Volunteer Sciences,2011.
16- Serena, L., Marcella, C., Adriano, P., & Robin, B.  Theory of mind and school achievement: The mediating role of social competence. Cognitive Development Volume 44, October 2017, Pages 85-97.
17-Baraei Nejad, Z., and Motahari Nejad, H. Studying Stuttering in Children (paesian). International Conference on Psychology and Culture of life, Istanbul, Mobin Institute of Cultural Ambassadors,2016.
18-Farazi, M. & Sajedi, F. Stuttering in Children (persian). Journal of Pathology of Speech and Language, Volume 1,2017, Issue 4, Pages 62-69.
19-Smith, A.& Kelly, E. Stuttering: Addynamic multifactorial. Nature and Treatment of stuttering: New Directions. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1998.
20-Livid, N. Knowing stuttering (persian). Hamedan, Noor – e – Elm, 2006.
21-Mohammadzadeh, H.Pathology and anthropology of stuttering of language (persian). Tabriz. Aydin Publishing, 1996.
22-Ward D. Stuttering and cluttering: Frameworks for understanding and treatment. Abingdon: Routledge.2006.
23-Nippold MA. Stuttering and language ability in children: Questioning the connection. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology.2012; 21(3):96 -183.
24-Guitar, B. Stuttering Therapy, Philadelphia: Teck Books,2006.
25-Goliamond. I. Behavior research and therapy of stuttering. washing ton D.C: pergamon press,2000.
26-Blomgren, M.Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2013. 6: 9–19.
27- Bothe, AK. Evidence – Based Treatment of Stuttering. Newjersy: Mahwah  British Journal of Psychology, 2004; 21, 3-10.
28-Blumgart E, Tran Y, Craig A. Social anxiety disorder in adults who stutter. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27(7):687–692.
29-Hezel, D & McNally, R.Theory of Mind Impairments in Social Anxiety Disorder. Behavior Therapy, Volume 45, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages 530-540.
30-lverach , L & Rapee , R. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: Current status and future directions. Journal of Fluency Disorders .Volume 40, June 2014, Pages 69-82.