Efficiency of Depression Index (DEPI (of Rorschach Test in Diagnosing Major Depressive Disorder

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Psychology, Lorestan, Khoramabad, Iran.

2 Department of Clinical Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Psychology, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.


Background and Objective: The Rorschach test is one of projective and clinical test that has a lot of application in assessing of mental disorder. This research has been done to assess the power of the Depression Index (DEPI) of Rorschach in diagnosing major depression disorder.
Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study 74 individuals (37 normal, 37depressed) were chosen as samples by using available sampling method. Then, Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI-II), as discerning instrument, and the Rorschach test using the Exner instruction were administered.
Results: The results showed that the depression index have  acceptable sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.93) and it can significantly discriminate people who suffer from major depression from normal people (P<.0001).
Conclusion: These results confirm that the Rorschach and specially DEPI can be trusted for diagnosing major depressive disorder.


1-Gotlib IH, Krasnoperova E. Information processing as a ulnerability factor in depression. Behavior Therapy 1998; 29: 306-317.
2-Bromet E, Andrade LH, Hwang I, Sampson NA, Alonso, Girolamo GD, et al. Crossnational epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Med 2011; 9: 90.
3-Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. kaplan and sadock s pocket handbook of clinical psychiatry. Tehran; Arjmand;  2009. p. 957-1005.
4-American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington DC; Author; 2000.
5-Axelsson R, Lagerkvist-Briggs M. Factors predicting suicide in psychotic patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1992: 241(5):259-66.
6-4TBeck AT. Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 1987; 1: 5–37.
7-Rahmani F. Rorschach and information processing deficiency in depressed patient. Journal of Iranian Psychologist 2006; 2: 185-196.
8-Biais MA, Bistis K. Projective assessment of psychopathology. In: Hilsenroth M, Segal S.                              Personality assessment. USA, NJ, John Wiley Sc Sons; 2004.Vol 2 P.485-499.
9-Zodan J, Charnas J, Hilsenorth M J. Rorschach assessment of reality testing, affect and object representation of Borderlin Personality Disorder: A comparsion of clinical sampls. Bulltin of the Menninger clinic 2009; 73, 22-122.
10-Esfandiary N. Pattern of response to human movement (M) and acromotic color (C’)   variables between depressed and normal student. Contemporary Psychology 2012; 5: 62-63.
11-Huprich SK. Rorschach assessment of personality. New Jersey: Mahwah; 2006.
12-Ackerman R, DeRubeis Rj.Is depressive realism real? Clinical Psychology Review 1991;11:565-584.Ackerman R
13-Marnat GG. Handbook of Psychological Assessment .4rd ed. English: Hoboken NJ, John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
14-Exner GB. The Rorschach: A comprehensive system: Basic foundation. New York: Wiely; 1993.Vol.2.P.28-38.
15-Rezaee, M. Comparison of reality testing between major depressive disorder  and normal people with Rorschach test. [Ms dissertation]. Tehran; Allameh Tabatabai university: 2013: 85-94.
16-Bluter AC, Beck JS. Cognitive therapy outcomes: A review of meta-analysis. Journal of the Norwegian psychological association 2000; 26: 17-31.
17-Osher Y, Mandel B, Shapiro E, Belmaker R H.  Brief  report Rorschach markers in offspring of manic-depressive patients. Journal of  Affective disorder 200; 59: 231-236.
18-Illone T, Taminen T, Karlsson H, Lauerma H, Leinonen KM, Wallenius E, "et al". DIagnoistic efficiency of Rorschach   schizophrenia and depression index first episode schizophrenia and sever depression 1999; 87: 183-192. 
19-Hartmann E, Wang CE, Berg M,  Saether L. Depression and vulnerability as assessed by the Rorschach method. Journal of Personality Assessment 2003; 81(3): 242–255.
20-Alavi J. Comparison of pattern response to Rorschach in bipolar and unipolar disorder. Ms dessretaion. Tehran university of medical sciences,1990.
21-Exner GB. Basic foundation and princples of interpretion: comprehensive system. New Jercey: Johen Weily; 2003.
22-Hartman E, Sunde T, Kristensen W, Martinussen M. Psyhological measures as predictors of military training performance. Journal of personality assessment 2003; 104: 402-405.
23-Jorgensen k, Anderson JT, Dam H. The diagnostic efficiency of Rorschach depression index and the schizophrenia index: A review. Journal of    Personality assessment 2000; 7: 259-280.
24-Carlson CF, Kula ML, Laurent CM. Rorschach revised  DEPI and CDI with inpatient major depressive and Borderline personality disorder with major depressive: validity issue. Journal of  clinical psychology 1997; 53: 51-58.
25-Ball JD, Archer RP, Gordon RA, French J. Rorschach depression indices with children and adolescents: concurrent validity findings. Journal of Personality Assessment 1991; 57: 465-476.
26-Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual of the Beck inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: The psychlogicol corporation: 2000.
27-Dabson E, Mohammad khani P. Psychometric property  of   Beck depression questionnaire (BDI-II) in people who suffer from major depressive in relative remediation. Journal of Rehabiliation 2008; 8: 80-86.
 28-Rjabi G, Atari Y, Haghighi, J. Factor analysis of Beck questionnaire on boy students of Shahid Chamran university. Journal of Educational and Psychology 20002; 8: 49-66.
29-Parker K. A meta analyze of the reliability and validity of Rorschach. Journal of personality assessment 1983; 47: 227-231.
30-Ganellen R J. Comparing the diagnostic efficiency of the MMPI, MCMI-II, and Rorschach: a review. Journal of Personality Assessment 1996; 67: 219-243.
31-Exner GB. Advanced interpretation. 3nd ed. New Jercey: Johen Weily; 2005.Vol 2. p.154-20.
32-Kostogianni N, Andronikof A. Estime de soi et haut potentiel: une etude Rorschach Système Estime de soi et haut potentiel: une étude Rorschach Système Intégré. L'Encéphale 2014; 40 (1): 3-8.