Attitude of 40-60 Years Old Women of Ahvaz City towards Menopause and its Relationship with Demographic Factors

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.


Background and Objective: Menopause is one of the natural transition stages of growth that could be the cause of physical, mental, social, and psychological changes. Both premenopausal and postmenopausal women's attitudes towards this phenomenon are important issues. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes towards menopause in women aged 40 to 60 and some influencing factors.
Subjects and Methods:  This is a cross sectional study was conducted on 400, 40 to 60 years old women in Ahvaz city in 2012. Tools for data collection were demographic and attitude questionnaires that were completed by interview. Attitude scores were transformed to 0-20 range. Highest scores were related to better attitudes towards the menopause. Attitude scores less than 10 was considered as a bad attitude, and attitude scores greater than 10 was considered as a good attitude. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0 using descriptive statistics, t-tests and ANOVA at a significant level of 5%.
Results: Mean of attitude score was 14.4±3.3. Negative attitude was recorded in 14.5% (n=58) of women, and 85.5% (n=342) had a positive attitude toward menopause. There was a significant relationship between attitude score and income (P<0.0001) and education level (P=0.02).
Conclusion: Although the majority of women in this study had a good attitude toward menopause, but it is necessary to make more efforts for its improvement.


1-Avis NE, McKinlay SM. A longitudinal analysis of women's attitudes toward the menopuase: results from the Massachusetts Women’s Health Study. Maturitas 1991;13(1):65–79.
2-Panay N. Menopause and the postmenopausal women. In: Edmonds DK, editor. Dewhurts' textbook of obstetrics and gynecology. 7th ed. London: Black Well; 2007. P. 479-94.
3-Lobo RA. Menopause: Endocrinology, consequences of estrogen deficiency, effects of hormone replacement therapy, treatment regimens. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2007. P. 1039-65.
4-Ayers B, Forshaw M, Hunter MS. The impact of attitudes towards the menopause on women's symptom experience: a systematic review. Maturitas 2010;65(1):28-36.
5-Avis NE, Crawford S. Cultural differences in symptoms and attitudes toward menopause. Menopause Manage 2008;17(3):8–13.
6-Theisen SC, Mansfiedl PK, Seery BL, Voda A. Predictors of midlife women's attitudes toward menopause. Health Val 1995;19(3):22-31.
7-Hunter M, Rendall M. Bio-psycho-socio-cultural perspectives on menopause. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2007;21(2):261-74.
8-Busch H, Barth-Olofsson AS, Rosenhagen S, Collins A. Menopausal transition and psychological development. Menopause 2003;10(2):179-87.
9-Palank CL. Determinants of health-promotive behavior. A review of current research. Nurs Clin North Am 1998;26(4):815-33.
10-Ghandchilar N, Khameneh S, Shaham FJ, Jafari Shabiri M. [Attitudes toward menopause and associated factors]. Med J Tabriz Uni Med Sci 2004;37(60):54-7. [In Persian]
11-Wani RJ, Gupta AS. Money & Menopause: The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Class and Awareness about Menopause in Women in Mumbai, India. J Obstet Gynecol India 2013;63(3):199-202.
12-Kowalcek I, Rotte D, Banz C, Diedrich K. Women's attitude and perceptions towards menopause in different cultures. Cross-cultural and intra-cultural comparison of pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women in Germany and in Papua New Guinea. Maturitas 2005;51(3):227-35
13-Donati S, Cotichini R, Mosconi P, Satolli R, Colombo C, Liberati A, et al. Menopause: knowledge, attitude and practice among Italian women. Maturitas 2009;63(3):246-52.
14-Ayranci U, Orsal O, Orsal O, Arslan G, Emeksiz DF. Menopause status and attitudes in a Turkish midlife female population: an epidemiological study. BMC Womens Health 2010;10:1.
15-Noroozi E, Kasiri Dolatabadi N, Eslami AA, Hassanzadeh A, Davari S. [Knowledge and attitude of 40-45 year old women toward menopause]. Health System Res 2011;7(4);460-7. [In Persian]
16-Castelo-Branco C, Palacios S, Mostajo D, Tobar C, von Helde S: Menopausal transition in Movima women, a Bolivian Native-American. Maturitas 2005;51(4):380-5.
17-Nusrat N, Nishat Z, Gulfareen H, Aftab M, Asia N. Knowledge, attitude and experience of menopause. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2008;20(1):56-9.
18-Mustafa GN, Sabir JM. Perception and experience regarding menopause among menopaused women attending teaching hospitals in Erbil City. Glob J Health Sci 2012;4(3):170-8.
19-Loutfy I, Abdel Aziz F, Dabbous NI, Hassan MHA. Women's perception and experience of menopause: a community-based study in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 2006;12 Suppl 2:S93-106.
20-Bairy L, Adiga S, Bhat P,  Bhat R. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms and quality of life after menopause in women from south India. Aust N Z J Obestet Gynaecol 2009;49(1):106-9.
21-Adler SR, Fosket JR, Kagawa-Singer M, McGraw SA, Wong-Kim E, Gold E, et al. Conceptualizing menopause and midlife: Chinese American and Chinese women in the US. Maturitas 2000;35(1):11-23.
22-Mahadeen AI, Halabi JO, Callister LC. Menopause: a qualitative study of Jordanian women’s perceptions. Int Nurs Rev 2008;55(4):427-33.
23-Noroozi E, Dolatabadi NK, Eslami AA, Hassanzadeh A, Davari S. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years. J Edu Health Promot 2013;2:25
24-Hassanzadeh G, Yekkezare S, Vaziri S, Soroorirad B, Darki L. Knowledge of women about menopause in Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2003;7(4):21-5. [In Persian]
25-Makvandi s, Zargarshoushtari Z, Yazdizadeh H, Zakerhosseini V, Bastami A. [Frequency and Severity of Menopausal Symptoms and Its Relationship with Demographic Factors in Pre-and Postmenopausal Women of Ahvaz, Iran]. IJOGI 2013;16(49-50):7-15. [In Persian]
26-Gur A, Sarac AJ, Nas K, Cevic R. The relationship between educational level and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. BMC Fam Pract 2004;5:18.