Prevalence of Depression among High School Girls in Kuhdasht, Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associated Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 PhD Student of Clinical Psychology.Department of Candidate of Clinical Psychology, Shahed University, Tehran, Tehran,Iran.

3 Medical Student. Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.


Background and Objective: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorder that is debilitating and causes impairment in job, education and social performance. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in high school girl students.
Subjects and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 600 girl students of public and private high schools in the Kuhdasht city participated in the study. Beck depression inventory and demographic information questionnaire were used in order to gather the data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test.
Results: In the present study, 65 % of students experienced depression (mild, moderate or severe) and 35% of students did not have depression. The mean score of depression was 21.1, in students of public schools and 19.39 in students of private schools. There were no significant associations between depression and the type of school, mother’s level of education  and number of family members (P>0.05). But the relationship between depression with educational function, father's level of education and history of depression in family were statistically significant (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results indicate that there is no significant difference between public and private schools in terms of prevalence of depression. History of depression in family has positive relation with depression. Association between father’s level of education and students’ educational function with depression is inversely related. The results of this study confirm the importance of regular and effective training programs to enhance the awareness of society members, especially parents of teenagers, about depression in adolescents.


1-Coughlan, H, Tiedt, L, Clarke, M, Kelleher, I., Tabish, J., Molloy, C, Harley M, Cannon, M. Prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation in early adolescence: An Irish population-based study. Journal of adolescence, 2014; 37(1): 1-9.
2-Verma N, Jain M, Roy P. Assessment of Magnitude and Grades of Depression among Adolescents in Raipur City, India. International Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 2014; 2(5): 10-13.
3-Casement, M. D., Guyer, A. E., Hipwell, A. E., McAloon, R. L., Hoffmann, A. M., Keenan, K. E., & Forbes, E. E. "Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms." Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 2014; 8: 18-27.
4-Chauhan S, Lal P, Nayak H. Prevalence of Depression among School Children aged 15 years and above in a Public School in Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR), 2014; 3(6): 269-273.
5-Kaplan,H.& Sadocks,B.J. comprehensive text  book of psychiatry(9th ed) philadelphia     williams and wilkins;2009: 3652-3671.
6-Nair, M.K., Paul, M.K. John, S. Prevalence of depression among adolescents. Indian Journal of Pediatric. 2004; 71: 523-524.
7-Saluja G, Iachan R, Scheidt PC, Overpeck M, Sun W, Giedd J N. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(8):760-765.
8-Bonn L. Depression in adolescents: epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and diagnosis Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 36: 661.
9-Cash RE. 2004. Helping children at Home and School II: Handouts for Families and Educators: Information for parents and educators. Bethesda.
10-Zahirodin A, Hoseini M, Semnani Y. Prevalence of depression and associated factors in high school students at Firozkoh city, Department of psychiatry Beheshti university of medical science,2004:9(1)(37):61-64
11-Monirpoor N, Yekeh Yazdandoust R, Atef Vahid MK, Delavar A, Khoosfi H. The relation between demographic characteristics and prevalence rate of depression among adolescent undergraduate students at Rey city. Social Welfare fall 2004; 4(14):178-93. [In Persian]
12-Dehghani M, Hakimi H. Prevalence of depression in school students boy at city Yazd in years 2001-2002.Yazd university of medical science.
13-Rostamzadeh Z, Khalilzadeh R, Prevalence and severity of depression in students girls at Oromie city,2006;5(2);12-18
14-Saberzadeh H,Esfahani M.Review the effectiveness of congnitive behavioral therapy on unhealthy attitudes and depressive symptoms in adolescents with depressive disorders.Tehran psychiatric institute.Iran university.                                                                                                        
 15-Daneshmonfared F.The relationship between inefficient attitude and outbreak symptoms of depression in adolescents in Tehran.Tehran psychiatric institute.Iran university.2001.                                                 
 16-Fatiregun A.A, Kumapayi T.E. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents in a rural district in southwest Nigeria. Journal of Adolescence. 2014; 37: 197–203.
17-Janbozorgi M, Hoseini Kh. Prevalence of depression in high school students at Tehran city.journal matyr Beheshti university.2005;10;379-383
18-American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American psychiatric association. 2013:155-188.
19-Masoudzadeh A,Khalilian A, Ashrafi M, Kimiabeigi K.Review the status of psychiatry health of high school students in Sari city in years 2001-2002.Journal Mazandaran university.2004;14(45);74-84.
20-Hallfors D D, Waller MW, Ford CA, Halpern CT, Brodish P H, Iritani B. Adolescent depression and suicide risk: association with sex and drug behavior. American journal of preventive medicine, 2004; 27(3): 224–230.
21-Halimeh E, Yaghobi D.The relationship between martial conflict and domestic violence than girls,sociology of women.2012;3(11);1-29                 
22-Aghajani N, Eftekharian A, Zarei A,Mosavi E, Dalirrad S,Rahbar N.Review of domestic violence against women and the impact of various factors on the incidence in women referred to forensic in oromieh city.journal of forensic medicin.2012;18(66),69-78                                                                               
 23-Ghafari M,Tashakori A, Alaghemand A. Assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms in children aged 11-14 years old  of mothers with major depression.
24-Adewuya A O, Ola BA, Aloba, O, Mapayi BM, Oginni O O. Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2006, 41(8): 674–678.