Zinc Deficiency in Lymphoma and Leukemia

Document Type : Original Article


1 Msc. Clinical Biochemistry.Department of Laboratory Sciences, paramedical Faculty , Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Laboratory Sciences. Hospital Healing ,Central Lab.


Background and Objective: With regard to antioxidant role of zinc in the body, zinc deficiency may be considered as one of the factors for development and progression of cancer. In this study, we evaluated zinc deficiency in patients who suffered from different types of leukemia and lymphoma in comparison with normal subjects.
Subjects and Methods: Our case population included 50 patients who suffered from different types of leukemia (ALL, AML) or lymphoma. Our control group were 50 normal subjects within the same range of age (10-30 year). Atomic absorption method was used in order to determine serum zinc concentration.
Results: The mean value of serum zinc concentration was 730.3(µg/L) in patient group and 935.6) µg/L) in normal group. The difference was significant (P<0.05).  In both patient and normal groups mean zinc concentration in men was not statistically different from women (P=1.00, p=0.77). There was not a significant relation between age and zinc concentration in both patient and normal group (P=0.34, r=0.19) and (P= 0.27, r=0.18).
Conclusion: The results obtained in this study indicate that zinc deficiency is a serious problem among leukemic and lymphatic patients.


1-Prasad AS .Effects of Zinc deficiency on immune functions. JTrace Elements Exp Med 2000;13(1):1-20.
2-Spacek J, Jilek P, Buchta V, Forstl M, Hronek M, Holeckova M. The serum levels of calcium, magnesium.iron and zinc in patient with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis during attack, remission and in healthy controls. Mycoses 2005;48(6):391-5.
3-Fischer Walker C, Black RE. Zinc and the risk for infectious disease. Annu Rev Nutr 2004;24:255-75.
4-Hakimi SM, Hashemi FS, Boloorsaz MR, Hashemi MH, Kosari H, Hakimi SS,  et al. Role of zinc in immune system and the necessity of administrating oral zinc sulphate solution in Iran. Ann Iranian Med 2006;2:143-50.
5-King LE, Fraker PJ. Zinc deficiency in mice alters myelopoiesis and hematopoiesis. J Nutr 2002;132(11):3301-7.
6-Emily Ho. Zinc deficiency, DNA damage and cancer risk. J Nutr Biochem 2004; 15(10):572-8.
7-Finamore A, Roselli M, Merendino N, Nobili F, Vignolini F, Mengheri E. Zinc deficiency suppresses the development of oral tolerance in rats. J Nutr 2003;133(1):191.8.
8-Xu H, Gao HL, Zheng W, Xin N, Che ZH, Baj SL, et al. Lactational zinc deficiency-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis by a BDNF-independent TrKB signaling pathway. Hippocampus 2011;21(5):495-501.
9-Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, Brown KH, Gardner JM, Hidayat A, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72(6):1516-22.
10-Magda D, Lecane P, Miller RA, Lepp C, Miles D, Mesfin M, et al. Motexafin gadolinium disrupts zinc metabolism in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2005;65(9):3837-45..
11-Sharif R, Thomas P, Zalewski P, Graham RD, Fenech M. The effect of zinc sulphate and zinc carnosine on genome stability and cytotoxicity in the WIL2-NS human lymphoblastoid cell line. Mutat Res 2011 ;720(1-2):22-33.
12-Cavdar  AO, Unal E, Babacan E, Gozdasoglu S, Yavuz G, Mengubas K, et al. Trace element analyses (zinc and selenium) in pediatric malignant lymphomas. Turk J Hematol 2002; 19(2):239-44.
13-Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Pamell WR, Wilson N, Ferguson EL. Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Māori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey. Br J Nutr 2011; 105(3):436-46..
14-Fraker PJ, King LE, Laakko T, Vollmer TL. The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status. J Nutr 2000;130(5s): 1399s – 406s.
15-Magda D, Lecane P, Miller RA, Lepp C, Miles D, Mesfin M, et al . Motexafin gadolinium disrupts zinc metabolism in human cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2005;65 (9):3837-45..
16-Dardenne M. Zinc and immune function. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56 Suppl:S20-3.
17-Zuo XL, Chen JM, Zhou X, Li XZ, Mei GY. Levels of selenium, zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with leukemia. Biol Trace Elem Res 2006;114(1-3):41-53.
18-Sgarbieri UR, Fisberg M, Tone LG, Latorre Mdo R.. Nutritional assessment and serum zinc and copper concentration among children with acute lymphocytic leukemia: a longitudinal study. Sao Paulo Med J 2006;124(6):316-20.
19-Prasad AS. Zinc deficiency. BMJ 2003;326(7386):409-10.
20-Maret W, Sandstead HH. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2006;20(1):3-18.
21-Solomons NW. Dietary sources of zinc and factors affecting its bioavailability. Food Nutr Bull 2001;22:138-54.
22-Prasad AS. Clinical immunological anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc. Exp Gerontol 2008;43(5):370-7.
23-Eby GA. Treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia using zinc adjuvant with chemotherapy and radiation--a case history and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 2005;64(6):1124-6.
24-de Jong N, Gibson RS, Thomson CD, Ferguson EL, Mc-Kenzie JE, Green TJ, et al. Selenium and zinc status are suboptimal in a sample of older New Zealand women in a community-based study. J Nutr 2001;131(10):2677-84.
25-Pepersack T, Rotsaert P, Benoit F, Willems D, Fuss M, Bourdoux P, et al. Prevalence of zinc deficiency and its clinical relevance among hospitalised elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2001;33(3):243-53.
26-Boonsiri P, Pooart J, Tangrassameeprasert R, Hongsprabhas P, Khampitak T,Yongvanit P. Serum vitamin A and zinc levels of healthy people in northeast Thailand. Clin Chim Acta 2006;373(1-2):132-8.
27-Kazemi-Bajestani SM, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ebrahimi M, Moohebati M, Esmaeili HA, Parizadeh MR, et al. Serum copper and zinc concentrations are lower in Iranian patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease than in subjects with a normal angiogram. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2007;21(1):22-8.