Effect of Kiwifruit Extract (Actinidia deliciosa) on Body Weight, Thyroid Hormones, Pain and Memory in Hypothyroidism Male Rats


1 Department of Biology, Sciences Faculty, Fars Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran. 2-Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Payamenoor University, Tehran East Division, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Payamenoor University, Tehran East Division, Tehran, Iran.

3 Ahvaz Physiology Research Center, Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz,Iran.

4 Department of Physiology, Medicine Faculty, Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.


Background and Objectives: Oxidative stress due to hypothyroidism causes behavioral deficits. Kiwifruit contains various vitamins and antioxidants. In this study the effect of kiwifruit extract on body weight, memory, pain and serum T4 and T3 in hypothyroidism male rats was evaluated.
Subjects and Methods: Wistar male rats(200-250g)were dividedinto 8 groups (n=8) randomely as following: 1) Control, the remaining groups were hypothyroidism that received methimazole (500mg/L in drinking water) for 3 weeks. 2-7) Treated groups received orally either different doses of Kiwifruit extract (50,100,150, 200, 400 mg/kg/5ml or the same volume of normal saline for 14 days. 8) Positive control group receiving 1 mg/L of levothyroxine in drinking water. Serum thyroid hormones (with radioimmunoassay), body weight, pain (by tail-flick test), and memory (by shutle box) were measured for all groups. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc and PResults: Serum T4 and T3, body weight and memory and pain reflex latency were decreased significantly after induction of hypothyroidism (P<0.01). Treatment with 150 and 200 mg/kg doses, without affecting the thyroid hormone serum level, improved memory and pain significantly (P<0.001) Higher doses of extract had no effect on above parameters.
Conclusion: Treatment with kiwifruit extract didn’t change thyroid hormones; therefore, had no effect on hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis.
Improving effects of Kiwifruit extract on behavioral deficits following hypothyroidism might be related to its antioxidant property in brain.


1-Broedel O, Eravei M, Fuxius S, Smolarz T, Jeitner A, Grau H,  "et al". Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on thyroid hormone concentrations in regions of the rat brain. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003; 285: E470-E480.
 2-Tavarini S, Degl’Innocenti E, Remorini D, Massai R, and Guidi L. Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage of Hayward kiwifruit. Food Chem 2008; 107: 282-288.
3-Anne White H, Nihal DS, Requejo-Tapia C, Roger Harker F. Evaluation of softening characteristic of fruit from 14 species of Actinidia. Postharvest Biol and Technol 2005; 35:143-151.
4-Ferguson AR, Ferguson LR. Are kiwi fruit really good for you? Acta Hortic 2003; 610: 131-138.
5-Ashoornejad M, Ghasemnejad M, Grailu S, Mirhoasseiny K. Evaluation of qualitative properties of Hayward Kiwifruit from Gillian Province during two months storage in cold room. J Garden Sci 2010; 24 (2): 259-264.
7-Du G, Li M, Ma F, and Liang D. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in Actinidia fruit. Food Chem 2009; 113: 557-562.
9-Eidi A, Eidi M, Badiei L. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of alcoholic extract Petroselinum Crispuml leaf in male mice. J med Sci of Islamic Azad Univ2010; 19(3): 181-186.
10-Kosari-Nasab M, Babri S, Fatehi-Gharehlar L, Doosti MH, Pakzad S. Involvement of GABAergic system in regulation of the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of Scrophularia striata extract in rats. Pharm Biol 2013 May; 51(5): 581-8.
11-Khombi Shooshtari M, Moazedi AA, Parham GA. Memory and motor coordination improvement by folic Acid supplementation in healthy adult male rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2012; 15(6): 1173-9.

12-Takeda A, Tamano H. Cognitive decline due to excess synaptic Zn2+ signaling in the hippocampus. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2014; (14): 6-26.

13-Takeda A, Takada S, Nakamura M, Suzuki M, Tamano H, Ando M, "et al". Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit. PLOS One 2011; 6(12): e28615.
14-Behnam Rasouli M, Rezanejad Joulaei J, Hadjzadeh M. Evaluation of the effects of maternal hypothyroidism and thyroxin thrapy on learning in rats’ offspring. Iranian Basic Sci in Med 1379; 3(1): 8-12.
 15-Zahedi Asl  S, Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani F. Evaluation of the red blood cells lysing in hypothyroid rats. Iranian J of Endoc and Metabol 2002; 14(2): 117-120.
16-Mostafaei A, Chalabi M. Kiwi fruit actinidin: puration and evaluation of the its measurment in Iranian varieties. Sci and Technol of Agric and natural Sources 2006 Autumn; 10 (3A): 223-230.
17-Lashgari R, Motamedi F, Zahedi Asl S, Shahidi S, Komaki A. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of chronic oral administration of L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil on learning and memory in rats. Behav Brain Res 2006; 171: 324-8.
18-Arzi A, Sarkaki A, Aghel N, Nazari Z, Zarei Naserabadi M. TheEffect of Saliva Officinalis Hydroalcoholic Extract on Analgesic Effect of Morphine in Rat. Jundishapur Sci Med J 2011; 10 (5): 505-512 .
19-Kale MK, Bhusari KP, Umathe SN. Role of thyroid hormones in the generation of widespread oxidative stress, J Cell Tissue Res 2007; 7 (1): 871-876.
20-Venditti P, Balestrieri M, Di Meo S, De Leo T. Effect of thyroid state on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, and susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat tissues. J of Endocrinol 1997; 155: 151-157.
21-Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Inc.Vol 2. P. 934-938
22-Sawant BU, Nadkarni GD, Thakare UR, Joseph LJ, Rajan MG. Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in kidney of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats, Indian J Exp Biol 2003; 41(11): 1344-1347.
23-Venditti P, Balestrieri M, Di Meo S, De Leo T. Effect of thyroid state on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, and susceptibility to oxidative stress in rat tissues. J of Endocrinol 1997; 155: 151-157.
24-Ghotbeddin Z, Moazedi AA, Parham GH. Comparison the effect of different doses of zinc supplementation on motor activity in young male rats. Iran J Biol 1387; 21(3): 543-548.
25-Suchetha Kumari N, Sandhya KM, and Damodara G. Oxidative Stress in Hypo and Hyperthyroidism. Al Ameen J Med Sci 2011;1 4 (1): 49 -53.
26-Cesar C, ALMEID A, Helena P, Rentan B, Orestes V, Forlenz A, Breno S, Diniz  With Alzheimers disease, Rev Psych Clin. 2012; 39 (3): 90-3.
27-Desimone R. The physiology of memory: recordings of things past. Science 1992; 258: 242- 6.
28-Holford P. The prevention of memory loss and progression to Alzheimer’s disease with B vitamins, Antioxidants and Essential Fatty Acids: A Review of the Evidence.  J Orthomol Med 2011; 26 (2): 53-58. 
29-Mellisa GE, Relly AO, Baille N, Twentyman G, Sturt J, "et al". Vitamin C: Evidence, application and commentary. NZFP 2008; 35: 312-318.
30-Rice ME. Ascorbate regulation and its neuroprotective role in the brain. Trends Neuroci 2000; 23 (5): 209- 16.
31-Jager AK, Saaby L. Flavonoids and CNS. Molecules 2011; 16: 1471- 1485.