Calculation of Dosimetric Parameters for 252Cf-AT Brachytherapy Source using Monte Carlo Simulation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Lecturer of Radiology.Department of Radiology, Behbahan School of Medical Sciences, Behbahan, Iran.

2 Coach to be Written.School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran.

3 Master of Medical Physics Radiology.Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

4 Master of Medical Physics.Physicist of Parsian Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran

5 Master of Physics.Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.


Background and Objective: Nowadays, the use of simulation for accurate determination of dosimetric parameters is inevitable. In this study dosimetric parameters 252CF-AT as a neutron brachytherapy sources using Monte Carlo simulation was calculated for treatment planning of some uterus and brain tumors.
Materials and Methods: Thephysical and geometrical characteristic of 252Cf-AT source were estimated by MCNPX (2.6.0) code and the air kerma strength of the source placed inside the vacuum sphere was calculated. Recommended dosimetric parameters by AAPM, TG-43 protocol were determined for source positioned in a homogeneity water phantom.
Results: The air kerma strength of 252 Cf source was estimated 0.33 (cGycm2/μg.h). The neutron dose rate constant using *F8 and F6 tallies was calculated 5.7524 (cGy/U.h), 5.650816 (cGy/U.h) respectively. The radial dose function with 5 degree equation was obtained. Numerical amounts of the anisotropy dose functions and the related equations were also calculated.
Conclusion: The calculated dosimetric parameters of the model 252Cf-AT source by Monte Carlo code are in good agreement with experimental results and previous calculations. The calculated values can be used by treatment planning systems for the 252Cf-AT source brachytherapy.


1-Caswell R, Coyne J, Randolph M. Kerma factors of elements and compounds for neutron energies below 30 MeV. The International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 1982;33(11):1227-62.
2-Rivard MJ, Wierzbicki JG, Van den Heuvel F, Martin RC, McMahon RR. Clinical brachytherapy with neutron emitting Cf sources and adherence to AAPM TG-43 dosimetry protocol. Medical physics  1999;26:87.
3-Mannhart W. Evaluation of the Cf-252 fission neutron spectrum between 0 and 20 MeV. IAEA-TECDOC  1987;410:158-71.
4-Maruyama Y, Van Nagell J, Yoneda J, Donaldson E, Gallion H, Higgins R, et al. Cure of cervical cancer using cf-252 neutron brachytherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 1990;166(5):317-21.
5-Maruyama Y, Bowen MG, Van Nagell JR, Gallion HH, Depriest P, Wierzbicki J. A feasibility study of  252Cf neutron brachytherapy, cisplatin + 5-FU chemo-adjuvant and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics 1994;29(3):529-34.
6-Maruyama Y, Feola JM, Wierzbicki J, Van Nagell JR, Powell D, Yoneda J. Clinical study of relative biological effectiveness for cervical carcinoma treated by 252Cf neutrons and assessed by histological tumour eradication. British Journal of Radiology  1990 Apr;63(748):270-7. PubMed PMID: 2112036.
7-Walter LS. (Ed.). LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code system for multiparticle and high energy applications. Version 240 LA-CP-02-408 Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2002.
8-Rivard MJ. Neutron dosimetry for a general 252Cf brachytherapy source. Med Phys  2000 Dec;27(12):2803-15. PubMed PMID: 11190964.
9-Yanch J, Zamenhof R. Dosimetry of 252Cf sources for neutron radiotherapy with and without augmentation by boron neutron capture therapy. Radiation research  1992;131(3):249-56.
10-Rivard MJ, M. CB, DeWerd LA, Hanson WF, Huq MS, Ibbott GS. Update of AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report: A revised AAPM protocol for brachytherapy dose calculations. Med Phys 2004;31(3):633-74.
11-Ghassoun J, Chkillou B, Jehouani A. Spatial and spectral characteristics of a compact system neutron beam designed for BNCT facility. Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine  2009 Apr;67(4):560-4. PubMed PMID: 19168369.
12-Colvett RD, Rossi HH, Krishnaswamy V. Dose distributions around a californium-252 needle. Phys Med Biol 1972 May;17(3):356-64. PubMed PMID: 5070446.
13-Wierzbicki JG, Rivard MJ, Roberts W. Physics and Dosimetry of Clinical 252Cf Sources. Californium-252, isotope for 21st century radiotherapy  1997;29:25-53.
14-Paredes L. Neutrons absorbed dose rate calculations for interstitial brachytherapy with 252Cf sources. NIMA 2007 (580):582–5.
15-Ghassoun J, Mostacci D, Molinari V, Jehouani A. Detailed dose distribution prediction of Cf-252 brachytherapy source with boron loading dose enhancement. Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry andmedicine  2010 Feb;68(2):265-70. PubMed PMID: 19889549.