The Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Circulating Levels of Adipsin and Insulin Resistance among Obese Type-2 Diabetic Females

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Student in Physical Education and Sport Sciences.Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Physical Education and Sport Sciences.Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Physical Education and Sport Sciences.Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.


Background and Objective: A strong relationship between metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes has been reported. Since it is recently suggested that a possible role of adipsin in metabolic disorders; therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on circulating levels of adipsin and insulin resistance in obese women with type 2 diabetes.
Subjects and Methods: Twenty-four obese women with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SD; age 41.3 ± 1.4 years and BMI 33.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2) participated in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups: Aerobic (n=12; age: 46.52±3.68 yr, BMI: 32.24±2.26) and control (n=12; age:45.82±6.79 yr, BMI:32.46± 3.28).  Aerobic exercises were conducted for 8 weeks/ 3 sessions per week with intensity 12-15 from Borg Index. Blood samples before and after exercise were collected 24 hours before starting the protocol and after the last session of the exercise training. For data analysis paired-samples and independent T-test were used to compare mean differences each group’s pretest and posttest and between groups at the significance level of P ≤0.05.
Results: There were significant decrease in fasting blood glocuse (P= 0.02), HOMA-IR (P=0.025), BMI (0.006), and body fat% levels (P= 0.005), although there were not significant changes in insulin (P= 0.358) and Adipsin (P= 0.777) of the experimental group.
Conclusion: According to the present results, we can conclude that aerobic exercise such as Pilates trainings is a suitable method to control diabetes in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.


1-Ahmadi K. Metabolisms and Endocrines. First ed. Tehran: Farhang farad; 2005; 98-113.
2-Ghalavand M. The comparison effect of 8 weeks aerobic and resistancetraining in blood glucose and lipid profiles on type 2 diabetic men. Chamran University; 2013.
3-Shahbazian H, Roshan pajoh F. The Prevalence of nephropathy in Early Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in patients of diabetes clinic of Ahvaz. Jundishapur Univ Med Sci 2006; 3(50): 600-7. [In Persian].
4-Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J clin Endocrinal Metab 2004; 89:2548-56.
5-Qatanani M, Mitchell AL. Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance: many choices on themenu، Genes Dev 2007;21: 1443-55.
6-Deforms RA, Bonadonna RC, Ferrannini E. Pathogenesis of NIDDM: a balanced overview. Diabetes Care 1992; 15(3):318-53.
7-Wang C, Guan Y, Yang J. Cytokines in the progression of pancreaticβ-cell dysfunction. Int J Endocrinol 2010; doi:10.1155/2010/515136
8-Cho JK, Han TK, Kang HS. Combined effects of body mass index and cardio/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentration in Korean young men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 108: 374-53.
9-Izadi M, Zarifian A, Eghdami A. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and blood adiponectin in diabetic males. ISMJ 2012; 15: 101-7.
10-Flier JS, Cook KS, Usher P, Spiegelman BM. Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity. Science 1987; 237:405–8. [PubMed]
11-Choy LN, Spiegelman BM. Adipsin and endogenous pathway of complement from adipose cells. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 12736-41.
12-Maslowska M, Vu H, Phelis S. Plasma acylation stimulating protein, adipsin and lipids in non-obese and obese populations. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1999; 29(8):679–86. [PubMed]
13-Baldo A, Sniderman AD, St-Luce S, Avramoglu RK, Maslowska M, Hoang B, et al. The adipsin-acylation stimulating protein system and regulation of intracellular triglyceride synthesis.J Clin Invest 1993; 92(3):1543-7.
14-James  CL, Ljubicic S, Leibiger B, Kern M, Ingo B. Adipsin is an Adipokine that improves b cell function in diabetes. Cell 158 2014; 27:41–53.
15-Tracey B. Adipsin meets β cells. SciBX: Science–Business eXchange. 2014 Nature Publishing Group.
16-Dubnov G, Brzezinski A, Berry EM .Weight control and the management of obesity after menopause: the role of physical activity. Maturitas 2003 Feb 25; 44(2):89-101.
17-Porte D Jr. Normal physiology and phenotypic characterization of beta-cell function in subjects at risk for noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. DiabetMed 1996; 13(9):25–32.
18-Pold R, Jensen LS, Jessen N, Buhl ES, Schmitz O, Flyvbjerg A, et al. Long-term AICAR administration and exercise prevents diabetes in ZDF rats. Diabetes 2005; 54: 928-34.
19-Wallace TM, Levy JC, Matthews DR. Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 1487–95.
20-Amouzad MH, Fadaei S, Abadei R, Abbaspour SA, Eshaghei Gorji N, Rahmani Kafshgari R, et al. Effects of an eight-week resistance training on plasma vaspin concentrations, metabolic parameters levels and physical fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cell J (Yakhteh) 2014; 16: 34-45.
21-Kim JS, Lee YH, Kim JC, Ko YH, Yoon CS, Yi HK. Effect of exercise training of different intensities on anti-inflammatory reaction in STZ diabetic Rats. Biol. Sport  2014; 31:73-79.
22-Pittaluga M, Sgadari A, Dimauro I, Tavazzi B, Parisi P, Caporossi D. Physical exercise and redox balance in type 2 diabetics: Effects of moderate training on biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage evaluated through comet assay. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2015. Article ID 981242, 7 page. Available from: URL
23-Taylor JD, Fletcher JP, Mathis RA, Cade WT.  Effects of moderate-versus high-intensity exercise training on physical fitness and physical function in people with type 2 diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Phys Ther 2014. [Epub ahead of print].
24-Shabanpoor J, Saghebjoo M, Fathi R, Gharari R. Effect of 8 weeks of cyclic resistance with high intensity on lipid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic man. Pajoohesh Nameh physiology varzesh karbordi 2014; 19: 135-42.
25-Yousefipoor P, Tadibi V, Behpoor N,  Parnow A, Delbari M, Rashidi S. The Effect of 8-week Aerobic and Concurrent (aerobic- resistance) Exercise Training on Serum IL-6 Levels and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2013; 21(5): 619-31.
26-Ivy JL. Role of exercise training in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Sports Med 1997 Nov; 24(5):321-36.
27-Katch, Victor L.  McArdle, William D.  Katch, Frank I. Essentials of exercise physiology. 4th eds, 2011.
28-Puglisi M, Vaishnav U, Shrestha S, Torresgonzalez M, Wood R, Volek J, et al. Raisins and additional walking have distinct effects on plasma lipids and inflammatory cytokines. Lipids in Health and Disease 2008; 7:14.
29-Hawley JA, Lessard SJ. Exercise training-induced improvements in insulin action. Acta Physiol 2008;192:127–35.
30-Marandi S, Ghadiri Bahram Abadi N, Esfarjani F, Mojtahedi H, Ghasemi Gh. Effects of intensity of aerobics on body composition and blood lipid profile in obese/overweight females, Int J Prev Med 2013; 4 (Suppl 1):118-25.
31-Ronti T, Lupattelli G, Mannarino E. The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 2006; 64(4): 355–65.
32-Maechler, P. Mitochondrial function and insulin secretion. Mol Cell. Endocrinol 2013; 379: 12–8.
33-Tracey Baas. Adipsin meets β cells. SciBX: Science–Business eXchange 2014. Nature Publishing Group.
34-Xia Z, Cianflone K. Acylation-stimulating protein precursor proteins in adipose tissue in human obesity. Metabolism 2003; 52: 1360-6.
35-Hamidi A. Ethnic diffrences in adipocytokine in severely obese children and adolescents in Singapore. 2008. Master thesis on clinical science department of medicine, National university of Singapore.
36-Ann A, Marion F, Guyton H, Andrea K, Marrero D, Ullrich I, et al. Verity. Exercise and Type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 2014; 41:1345-60.
37-Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil 1970; 2 (2): 92–8. PMID 5523831.
38-Hordern MD, Louise M, Cooney E, Beller M, Johannes B, Thomas P, et al. Determinants of changes in blood glucose response to short-term exercise training in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Clinical Science 2008; 115: 273–81.
39-Dunstan DW. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2002; 25: 1729–36.
40-Bahari S, Faramarzi M, Azamian A, Cheragh cheshm M. The Effect of 8 Week Resistance Training on Resting Level of Liver Inflammatory Markers and Insulin Resistance of Type 2 Diabetic Women Armaghane-danesh, Yasuj University of Original Article Medical Sciences Journal 2014; 19 (5): 450-61.
41-Arslan M, Ipekci SH, Kebapcilar L, Dogan Dede N, Kurban S, Erbay E, et al. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on MDA and TNF-𝛼 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Notices 2014, Article ID 820387, 5 pages