Determination of the prevalence of fever after congenital cardiac surgery in children

Document Type : Original Article


1 Professor of Cardiac Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Pain Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

2 School of Medicine, Pain Research Center, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

3 Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.



undergoing congenital heart surgery and causes anxiety in the surgeon and the patient's parents. Proper diagnosis and management of fever requires careful preoperative patient evaluation, targeted physical examination, and comprehensive knowledge about the prevalence and common causes of fever. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fever after congenital heart surgery in children. Subjects and Methods This was a descriptive-analytical study on children under 10 years of age undergoing congenital heart surgery in the cardiac operating room of Golestan Hospital of Ahvaz in 2021. Data collection tools included a two-section checklist. The first section was related to demographic characteristics and the second addressed patients' clinical status and causes of fever. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results After surgery, 21 patients (31.8%) developed fever and the prevalence of fever was not significantly associated with age, sex, presence of genetic syndrome, type of disease, type of operation, cardio pulmonary bypass, duration of aortic cross clamp, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, or duration of operation. However, it was significantly correlated with the mean length of ICU stay (P> 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of fever in patients undergoing congenital heart surgery was relatively high and had a significant relationship with the length of ICU stay.


Main Subjects

[1] Vijarnsorn C, Winijkul G, Laohaprasitiporn D, Chungsomprasong P, Chanthong P, Durongpisitkul K, Soonswang J, Nana A, Subtaweesin T, Sriyoschati S, Pooliam J. Postoperative fever and major infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2012 Jun 1;95(6):761.[PMID]
[2] Güvener M, Korun O, Demirtürk OS. Risk factors for systemic inflammatory response after congenital cardiac surgery. Journal of Cardiac Surgery: Including Mechanical and Biological Support for the Heart and Lungs. 2015 Jan;30(1):92-6. [10.1111/jocs.12465 ] [PMID]
[3] Corkum KS, Hunter CJ, Grabowski JE, Lautz TB. Early postoperative fever workup in children: utilization and utility. Journal of pediatric surgery. 2018 Jul 1;53(7):1295-300. [10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.06.019 ][PMID]
[4] Gupta AK, Singh VK, Varma A. Approach to postoperative fever in pediatric cardiac patients. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2012 Jan;5(1):61-8. [PMID]
[5] Warltier DC, Laffey JG, Boylan JF, Cheng DC. The systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery: implications for the anesthesiologist. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. 2002 Jul 1;97(1):215-52. [10.1097/ 00000542-200207000-00030 ] [PMID]
[6] Grisaru-Soen G, Paret G, Yahav D, Boyko V, Lerner-Geva L. Nosocomial infections in pediatric cardiovascular surgery patients: a 4-year survey. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2009 Mar 1;10(2):202-6. [10.1097/PCC.0b013e31819a37c5] [PMID]
[7] Gupta AK, Singh VK, Varma A. Approach to postoperative fever in pediatric cardiac patients. Annals of pediatric cardiology. 2012 Jan 1;5(1):61-8. [10.4103/0974-2069.93714 ] [PMID]
[8] Barker GM, O'Brien SM, Welke KF, Jacobs ML, Jacobs JP, Benjamin Jr DK, Peterson ED, Jaggers J, Li JS. Major infection after pediatric cardiac surgery: a risk estimation model. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2010 Mar 1;89(3):843-50. [10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.11.048 ] [PMID]
[9] Kane JM, Friedman M, Mitchell JB, Wang D, Huang Z, Backer CL. Association between postoperative Fever and atelectasis in pediatric patients. World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2011 Jul;2(3):359-63. [10.1177/ 2150135111403778 ] [PMID]
[10] Villasís-Keever MA, Zapata-Arenas DM, Penagos-Paniagua MJ. Frequency of postoperative fever in children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiovascular surgery and associated risk factors. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. 2002 Oct 1;55(10):1063-9. [10.1016/s0300-8932(02)76757-2] [PMID]
[11] Andrade CL, Olvera S, Reyes PA. Fever and infection after heart surgery. A prospective study of 75 cases. Archivos del Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico. 1989 Sep 1;59(5):487-91. [PMID]
[12] Nateghian A, Taylor G, Robinson JL. Risk factors for surgical site infections following open-heart surgery in a Canadian pediatric population. American journal of infection control. 2004 Nov 1;32(7):397-401. [10.1016/j.ajic.2004.03.004] [PMID]
[13] Ceballos Álvarez A, Luis González A, Fuentes Herrera L, Lastayo Casanova RG, Torres Cárdenas R, Gutiérrez Díaz MJ,
Moré Duarte A. Postoperative fever in patients of the Cardiocentro Ernesto Che Guevara. CorSalud. 2015 Apr 1;7(2). [Link]
[14] Clark JA, Bar-Yosef S, Anderson A, Newman MF, Landolfo K, Grocott HP. Postoperative hyperthermia following off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2005 Aug 1;19(4): 426-9. [10.1053/j.jvca.2005.01.042 ] [PMID]