Comparison of the Effects of Two Exercise Programs of High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training on Physiological Function of Heart Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master of Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Professor of Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Sport Physiology, Department of Sport Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor of Atherosclerosis Research Center, Department of Cardiovascular, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.



Background: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation(CR) programs increase physiological function. However, it’s not yet clear which feature of exercise is most effective in improving important physiological performance indicators in heart patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training(HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training(MCT) on metabolic equivalent of tasks(METs), submaximal myocardial oxygen consumption(MVO2submax), and heart rate recovery(HRR) of heart patients after coronary artery bypass graft(CABG) surgery.
Methods: Twenty-four post-CABG patients (15 males and 9 females) with a mean age of 60.75±3.16 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.40±1.09 kg/m2 were randomly divided into three groups of HIT, MCT and control group (CG). The training groups (HIT and MCT) trained for eight-weeks, three-sessions per week, and 45minutes per session. The research variables (METs, MVO2submax and HRR) were measured and compared in two stages before and after eight-weeks of CR programs.
Results: After eight-weeks of CR programs, patients in both training groups showed a significant improvement in METs, MVO2submax and HRR (P<0.05), and the HIT group showed significantly greater improvement in METs (P=0.001) and HRR (P=0.001) compared to the MCT group, as well the MCT group showed a significantly more improvement in MVO2submax (P=0.001) than the HIT group. Also, no cardiovascular adverse events related to HIT or MCT occurred during the implementation of the study.
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, HIT seems to be more effective than MCT in improving METs and HRR of post-CABG patients, and is safe as well.


Hosein Askarinzhad [PumMed] [Google Scholar]

 Abdolhamid Habibi [PumMed] [Google Scholar]

 Rouhollah Ranjbar [PumMed] [Google Scholar]

 Seyed Mohamad Hasan Adel [PumMed] [Google Scholar]


[1] García IB, Arias JÁR, Campo DJR, González-Moro IM, Poyatos MC. High-intensity interval training dosage for heart failure and coronary artery disease cardiac rehabilitation. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2019;72(3):233-43. [DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2018.02.015] [PMID]
[2] Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095-128. [DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0] [PMID] [PMCID]
[3] Keteyian SJ, Brawner CA, Savage PD, Ehrman JK, Schairer J, Divine G, et al. Peak aerobic capacity predicts prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Am Heart J. 2008;156(2):292-300. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.03.017] [PMID]
[4] Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S, Maki M, Yachi Y, Asumi M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;301(19):2024-35. [DOI: 10.1001/jama. 2009.681] [PMID]
[5] Taylor RS, Brown A, Ebrahim S, Jolliffe J, Noorani H, Rees K, et al. Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2004;116(10):682-92. [DOI: 10.1016/ j.amjmed.2004.01.009] [PMID]
[6] Kendziorra K, Walther C, Foerster M, Möbius-Winkler S, Conradi K, Schuler G, et al. Changes in myocardial perfusion due to physical exercise in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2005;32(7):813-9. [DOI: 10.1007/s00259-005-1768-1] [PMID]
[7] Kim C, Choi HE, Lim MH. Effect of high interval training in acute myocardial infarction patients with drug-eluting stent. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;94(10 Suppl 1):879-86. [DOI: 10.1097/PHM. 0000000000000290] [PMID]
[8] Medina-Leyte DJ, Zepeda-García O, Domínguez-Pérez M, González-Garrido A, Villarreal-Molina T, Jacobo-Albavera L. Endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and coronary artery disease: potential biomarkers and promising therapeutical approaches. nt J Mol Sci. 2021;22(8):3850. [DOI: 10.3390/ijms 22083850] [PMID] [PMCID]
[9] Manresa-Rocamora A, Ribeiro F, Casanova-Lizon A, Flatt AA, Sarabia JM, Moya-Ramon M. Cardiac rehabilitation improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease patients. Int J Sports Med. 2022;43(11):905-20. [DOI: 10.1055/a-1717-1798] [PMID]
[10] Heran BS, Chen JM, Ebrahim S, Moxham T, Oldridge N, Rees K, et al. Exercise‐based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;11:CD001800. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001800.pub3] [PMID] [PMCID]
[11] Anderson L, Oldridge N, Thompson DR, Zwisler A-D, Rees K, Martin N, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(1):1-12. [DOI: 10.1016/j. jacc.2015.10.044] [PMID]
[12] Price KJ, Gordon BA, Bird SR, Benson AC. A review of guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation exercise programmes: is there an international consensus? Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(16):1715-33. [DOI: 10.1177/2047487316657669] [PMID]
[13] Thompson PD, Arena R, Riebe D, Pescatello LS. ACSM’s new preparticipation health screening recommendations from ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013;12(4):215-7. [DOI: 10.1249/JSR.0b0 13e31829a68cf] [PMID]
[14] Hannan AL, Hing W, Simas V, Climstein M, Coombes JS, Jayasinghe R, et al. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access J Sports Med. 2018;9:1-17. [DOI: 10.2147/OAJSM. S150596] [PMID]
[15] Wisløff U, Ellingsen Ø, Kemi OJ. High-intensity interval training to maximize cardiac benefits of exercise training? Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2009;37(3):139-46. [DOI: 10.1097/JES.0b013e3181aa 65fc] [PMID]
[16] Camm AJ, Lüscher TF, Serruys PW. The ESC textbook of cardiovascular medicine: OXFORD university press. 2009.[DOI: 10.1093/med/9780199566990.001.0001]
[17] Guidelines ECfS, Corrà U, Piepoli MF, Carré F, Heuschmann P, Hoffmann U, et al. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Eur Heart J. 2010;31(16):1967-74. [DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq236] [PMID]
[18] Smart NA, Dieberg G, Giallauria F. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2013;166(2):352-8. [DOI: 10.1016/j. ijcard.2011.10.075] [PMID]
[19] Cornish AK, Broadbent S, Cheema BS. Interval training for patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review. J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(4):579-89. [DOI: 10.1007/s00421-010-1682-5] [PMID]
[20] Villelabeitia Jaureguizar K, Vicente-Campos D, Ruiz Bautista L, Hernández de la Peña C, Arriaza Gómez MJ, Calero Rueda MJ, et al. Effect of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2016;36(2):96-105. [DOI: 10.1097/HCR.000000000000 0156] [PMID]
[21] Guiraud T, Nigam A, Gremeaux V, Meyer P, Juneau M, Bosquet L. High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. Sports Med. 2012;42(7):587-605. [DOI: 10.2165/11631910-000000000-00000] [PMID]
[22] Moholdt TT, Amundsen BH, Rustad LA, Wahba A, Løvø KT, Gullikstad LR, et al. Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized study of cardiovascular effects and quality of life. Am Heart J. 2009;158(6):1031-7. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009. 10.003] [PMID]
[23] [23] Rognmo Ø, Hetland E, Helgerud J, Hoff J, Slørdahl SA. High intensity aerobic interval exercise is superior to moderate intensity exercise for increasing aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004;11(3):216-22. [DOI: 10.1097/01.hjr.0000131677.96762. 0c] [PMID]
[24] [24] Warburton DE, McKenzie DC, Haykowsky MJ, Taylor A, Shoemaker P, Ignaszewski AP, et al. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training for the rehabilitation of patients with
Askarinzhad H, et al. High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training in Heart Patients. JSMJ. 2024; 22(5):619-638
Journal of Medical Sciences
November & December 2024. Vol 22. No 5
coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95(9):1080-4. [DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.12.063] [PMID]
[25] Currie KD, Dubberley JB, McKelvie RS, MacDonald MJ. Low-volume, high-intensity interval training in patients with CAD. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(8):1436-42. [DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31828bbbd4] [PMID]
[26] Rocco EA, Prado DM, Silva AG, Lazzari J, Bortz PC, Rocco DF, et al. Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(6):623-8. [DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2012(06)13] [PMID] [PMCID]
[27] Cardozo GG, Oliveira RB, Farinatti PT. Effects of high intensity interval versus moderate continuous training on markers of ventilatory and cardiac efficiency in coronary heart disease patients. cientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:192479. [DOI: 10.1155/2015/192479] [PMID] [PMCID]
[28] Benetti M, Araujo CLPd, Santos RZd. Cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life at different exercise intensities after myocardial infarction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(3):399-404. [DOI: 10.1590/s0066-782x2010005000089] [PMID]
[29] Karvonen J, Vuorimaa T. Heart rate and exercise intensity during sports activities. Sports Med. 1988;5(5):303-11. [DOI: 10.2165/00007256-198805050-00002] [PMID]
[30] Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Whipp BJ. Principles of exercise testing and interpretation: including pathophysiology and clinical applications. Can J Cardiol. 2007;23(4):274. [PMCID]
[31] Currie KD, Bailey KJ, Jung ME, McKelvie RS, MacDonald MJ. Effects of resistance training combined with moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(6):637-42. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.09.013] [PMID]
[32] Borg G. Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales: Human kinetics; 1998. [Link]
[33] Mezzani A, Hamm LF, Jones AM, McBride PE, Moholdt T, Stone JA, et al. Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013;20(3):442-67. [DOI: 10.1177/2047487312460484] [PMID]
[34] Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982;14(5):377-81. [PMID]
[35] Foster C, Jackson AS, Pollock ML, Taylor MM, Hare J, Sennett SM, et al. Generalized equations for predicting functional capacity from treadmill performance. Am Heart J. 1984;107(6):1229-34. [DOI: 10.1016/0002-8703(84)90282-5] [PMID]
[36] Swainson MG, Ingle L, Carroll S. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a predictor of short‐term and lifetime estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019;29(9):1402-13. [DOI: 10.1111/sms.13468] [PMID]
[37] Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar K, Vicente-Campos D, Senen AB, Jiménez VH, Garrido-Lestache MEB, Chicharro JL. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on
post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients. Int J Cardiol. 2017;244:17-23. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard. 2017.06.067] [PMID]
[38] Keteyian SJ, Hibner BA, Bronsteen K, Kerrigan D, Aldred HA, Reasons LM, et al. Greater improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness using higher-intensity interval training in the standard cardiac rehabilitation setting. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2014;34(2):98-105. [DOI: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000049] [PMID]
[39] Prado D, Rocco E, Silva A, Rocco D, Pacheco M, Silva P, et al. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2016;49(2):e4890. [DOI: 10. 1590/1414-431X20154890] [PMID]
[40] Li S, Chen X, Jiao H, Li Y, Pan G, Yitao X. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Exercise Capacity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Cardiol Res Pract. 2023;2023:7630594. [DOI: 10.1155/2023/7630594] [PMID] [PMCID]
[41] Conraads VM, Pattyn N, De Maeyer C, Beckers PJ, Coeckelberghs E, Cornelissen VA, et al. Aerobic interval training and continuous training equally improve aerobic exercise capacity in patients with coronary artery disease: the SAINTEX-CAD study. Int J Cardiol. 2015;179:203-10. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.10.155] [PMID]
[42] Taylor JL, Holland DJ, Keating SE, Leveritt MD, Gomersall SR, Rowlands AV, et al. Short-term and long-term feasibility, safety, and efficacy of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation: the FITR heart study randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(12):1382-89. [DOI: 10.1001/jamacardio. 2020.3511] [PMID]
[43] Midgley A, McNaughton LR, Carroll S. Physiological determinants of time to exhaustion during intermittent treadmill running at vV· O2max. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(4):273-80. [DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-924336] [PMID]
[44] Gaeini AA, Satarifard S, Heidary A. Comparing the Effect of Eight Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Physiological Variables of Exercise Stress Test in Cardiac Patient after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. Journal of Isfahan Medical School. 2014;31(267): 2171-81. [Link]
[45] Liou K, Ho S, Fildes J, Ooi S-Y. High intensity interval versus moderate intensity continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of physiological and clinical parameters. Heart Lung Circ. 2016;25(2):166-74. [DOI: 10.1016/j.hlc.2015.06.828] [PMID]
[46] Elliott AD, Rajopadhyaya K, Bentley DJ, Beltrame JF, Aromataris EC. Interval training versus continuous exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;24(2):149-57. [DOI: 10.1016/j.hlc.2014.09.001] [PMID]
[47] Hall J, Guyton A. Textbook of Medical Physiology: Enhanced E-book. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2010. [Link]
[48] Ehrman JK, Gordon PM, Visich PS, Keteyian SJ. Clinical exercise physiology: Human Kinetics; 2009. [Link]
[49] Huang P-H, Leu H-B, Chen J-W, Cheng C-M, Huang C-Y, Tuan T-C, et al. Usefulness of attenuated heart rate recovery immediately after exercise to predict endothelial dysfunction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Am J
Journal of Medical Sciences
November & December 2024. Vol 22. No 5
Askarinzhad H, et al. High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training in Heart Patients. JSMJ. 2024; 22(5):619-638
Cardiol. 2004;93(1):10-3. [DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09. 004] [PMID]
[50] Hai J-J, Siu C-W, Ho H-H, Li S-W, Lee S, Tse H-F. Relationship between changes in heart rate recovery after cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular mortality in patients with myocardial infarction. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7(7):929-36. [DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.03.023] [PMID]
[51] Giallauria F, Lorenzo AD, Pilerci F, Manakos A, Lucci R, Psaroudaki M, et al. Long-term effects of cardiac rehabilitation on end-exercise heart rate recovery after myocardial infarction. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13(4):544-50. [DOI: 10.1097/01.hjr.0000216547.07432.fb] [PMID]
[52] Giallauria F, Lucci R, Pietrosante M, Gargiulo G, De Lorenzo A, D'Agostino M, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves heart rate recovery in elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(7):713-7. [DOI: 10.1093/gerona/61.7.713] [PMID]
[53] Tsai S-W, Lin Y-W, Wu S-K. The effect of cardiac rehabilitation on recovery of heart rate over one minute after exercise in patients with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Clin Rehabil. 2005;19(8):843-9. [DOI: 10.1191/0269215505cr 915oa] [PMID]
[54] Wu SK, Lin YW, Chen CL, Tsai S-W. Cardiac rehabilitation vs. home exercise after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a comparison of heart rate recovery. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85(9):711-7. [DOI: 10.1097/01.phm.0000228597.64057. 66] [PMID]
[55] Jouven X, Empana J-P, Schwartz PJ, Desnos M, Courbon D, Ducimetière P. Heart-rate profile during exercise as a predictor of sudden death. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(19):1951-8. [DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa043012] [PMID]
[56] Lahiri MK, Kannankeril PJ, Goldberger JJ. Assessment of autonomic function in cardiovascular disease: physiological basis and prognostic implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(18): 1725-33. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.01.038] [PMID]
[57] Anari LM, Ghanbari-Firoozabadi M, Ansari Z, Emami M, Nasab MV, Nemaiande M, et al. Effect of cardiac rehabilitation program on heart rate recovery in coronary heart disease. J Tehran Heart Cent. 2015;10(4):176-81. [PMID]
[58] Ribeiro F, Alves AJ, Teixeira M, Miranda F, Azevedo C, Duarte JA, et al. Exercise training enhances autonomic function after acute myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled study. Rev Port Cardiol. 2012;31(2):135-41.[DOI: 10.1016/j.repc. 2011.12.009] [PMID]
[59] Tiukinhoy S, Beohar N, Hsie M. Improvement in heart rate recovery after cardiac rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2003;23(2):84-7. [DOI: 10.1097/00008483-200303000-00002] [PMID]
[60] Kannankeril PJ, Le FK, Kadish AH, Goldberger JJ. Parasympathetic effects on heart rate recovery after exercise. J Investig Med. 2004;52(6):394-401. [DOI: 10.1136/jim-52-06-34] [PMID]
[61] Nilsson G, Hedberg P, Jonason T, Lönnberg I, Öhrvik J. Heart rate recovery is more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, and insulin sensitivity in women than in men among the elderly in the general population. Am Heart J. 2007;154(3):460.e1-7. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.06.025] [PMID]
[62] Hart E, Dawson E, Rasmussen P, George K, Secher NH, Whyte G, et al. β‐Adrenergic receptor desensitization in man: insight into post‐exercise attenuation of cardiac function. J Physiol. 2006;577(2):717-25. [DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.116426] [PMID]
[63] Al Haddad H, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bourdon PC, Buchheit M. Effect of acute hypoxia on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation in healthy men. Front Physiol. 2012;3:289. [DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00289] [PMID]
[64] LaPier TK. Functional status of patients during subacute recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery. Heart Lung. 2007;36(2):114-24. [DOI: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2006.09.002] [PMID]
[65] Thayer JF, Lane RD. The role of vagal function in the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Biol Psychol. 2007;74(2):224-42. [DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.11.013] [PMID]
[66] Haensel A, Mills PJ, Nelesen RA, Ziegler MG, Dimsdale JE. The relationship between heart rate variability and inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases. sychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33(10):1305-12. [DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.007] [PMID] [PMCID]
[67] Thayer J, Fischer J. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine and C‐reactive protein: evidence for the cholinergic anti‐inflammatory pathway in healthy human adults. J Intern Med. 2009;265(4):439-47. [DOI: 10.1111/j. 1365-2796.2008.02023.x] [PMID]
[68] Youn J-C, Lee HS, Choi S-W, Han S-W, Ryu K-H, Shin E-C, et al. Post-exercise heart rate recovery independently predicts clinical outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0154534. [DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0154534] [PMID]
[69] Heffernan KS, Fahs CA, Shinsako KK, Jae SY, Fernhall B. Heart rate recovery and heart rate complexity following resistance exercise training and detraining in young men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293(5):H3180-6. [DOI: 10.1152/ ajpheart.00648.2007] [PMID]
[70] Hirsh DS, Vittorio TJ, Barbarash SL, Hudaihed A, Tseng C-H, Arwady A, et al. Association of heart rate recovery and maximum oxygen consumption in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25(8):942-5. [DOI: 10.1016/j.healun.2006.04.006] [PMID]
[71] Myers J, Hadley D, Oswald U, Bruner K, Kottman W, Hsu L, et al. Effects of exercise training on heart rate recovery in patients with chronic heart failure. Am Heart J. 2007;153(6):1056-63. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.02.038] [PMID]
[72] Carnethon MR, Jacobs Jr DR, Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Gidding SS, Shoushtari C, et al. A longitudinal study of physical activity and heart rate recovery: CARDIA, 1987-1993. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(4):606-12. [DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000158190.56061. 32] [PMID]
[73] Vicente-Campos D, López AM, Nuñez MJ, Chicharro JL. Heart rate recovery normality data recorded in response to a maximal exercise test in physically active men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(6):1123-8. [DOI: 10.1007/s00421-014-2847-4] [PMID]
[74] Moholdt T, Aamot IL, Granøien I, Gjerde L, Myklebust G, Walderhaug L, et al. Aerobic interval training increases peak
Askarinzhad H, et al. High-intensity Interval Training and Moderate-intensity Continuous Training in Heart Patients. JSMJ. 2024; 22(5):619-638
Journal of Medical Sciences
November & December 2024. Vol 22. No 5
oxygen uptake more than usual care exercise training in myocardial infarction patients: a randomized controlled study. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(1):33-44. [DOI: 10.1177/0269215511 405229] [PMID]
[75] Munk PS, Butt N, Larsen AI. High-intensity interval exercise training improves heart rate variability in patients following percutaneous coronary intervention for angina pectoris. Int J Cardiol. 2010;145(2):312-4. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.11. 015] [PMID]
[76] Munk PS, Staal EM, Butt N, Isaksen K, Larsen AI. High-intensity interval training may reduce in-stent restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the relationship to endothelial function and inflammation. Am Heart J. 2009;158(5):734-41. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.08.021] [PMID]
[77] Wisløff U, Støylen A, Loennechen JP, Bruvold M, Rognmo Ø, Haram PM, et al. Superior cardiovascular effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: a randomized study. Circulation. 2007; 115(24):3086-94. [DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.6750 41] [PMID]