Vitamin E Reduces Kidney Damage Caused by Ecstasy in Mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomical sciences, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

2 Nephrology and kidney transplant Research Center, Clinical Research Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

3 Medical student of Urmia University of medical sciences, school of medicine, Urmia, Iran.

4 Associated Professor, Department of anatomical sciences, school of medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Urmia, Iran.


Background and Objectives Ecstasy is one of the most famous derivatives of amphetamine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E on ecstasy-induced kidney histological damage in mice. Subjects and Methods This study included five weeks of intervention on 28 male albino mice that were divided into four groups: control, ecstasy (10 mg/kg ecstasy intraperitoneally), ecstasy + vitamin E 150 mg/kg through gavage), vitamin E solvent (olive oil). Kidney tissues were evaluated histologically by H&E and Masson’s trichrom staining methods. Serum urea and creatinine levels were also measured. Results Tissue changes were indicative of kidney tissue disorder in the ecstasy group. Evaluation of renal fibrosis showed that in the ecstasy group, large areas of fibrosis were seen in the kidney tissue, and in the glomerular structure and renal tubules. On the other hand, the degree of fibrosis in the group receiving vitamin E was significantly lower compared with the ecstasy group. Also, taking ecstasy caused a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea compared to the control group. However, vitamin E improved these conditions. Conclusion Ecstasy consumption can lead to glomerular infiltration, Bowman capsule injury, and renal fibrosis. In contrast, the use of vitamin E treatment after taking ecstasy can significantly inhibit the progression of injury.


Main Subjects

[1] Capela JP, Carvalho FD. A review on the mitochondrial toxicity of “ecstasy”(3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA). Current Research in Toxicology. 2022 Jan 1;3:100075.[ 10. 1016/j.crtox.2022.100075 ][PMID]
[2] Smyth B, Haber A, Hennessy A. Kidney Disease and Electrolyte Disorders in the Context of Drug Use. Textbook of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives. 2021:1113-32. [Link]
[3] Ramos L, Hicks C, Caminer A, Couto K, Narlawar R, Kassiou M, McGregor IS. MDMA (‘Ecstasy’), oxytocin and vasopressin modulate social preference in rats: A role for handling and oxytocin receptors. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2016 Nov 1;150:115-23. [10.1016/j.pbb.2016.10.002] [PMID]
[4] Hall AP, Henry JA. Acute toxic effects of ‘Ecstasy’ (MDMA) and related compounds: overview of pathophysiology and clinical management. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006 Jun 1;96(6):678-85. [10.1093/bja/ael078] [PMID]
[5] Srivastava A, Palsson R, Leaf DE, Higuera A, Chen ME, Palacios P, Baron RM, Sabbisetti V, Hoofnagle AN, Vaingankar SM, Palevsky PM. Uric acid and acute kidney injury in the critically ill. Kidney medicine. 2019 Jan 1;1(1):21-30. [10.1016/j.xkme. 2019.01.003 ] [PMID]
[6] Hassan M, Abd-Elwahab W, Megahed R, Mohammed A. An evaluation of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity induced by acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and comparison of the possible protective role of selenium and vitamin E on these effects. Ain Shams Journal of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology. 2019 Jul 1;33(2):48-58. [10.21608/ajfm.2019.36574]
[7] Rengaraj D, Hong YH. Effects of dietary vitamin E on fertility functions in poultry species. International journal of molecular sciences. 2015 Apr 30;16(5):9910-21. [10.3390/ijms16059910] [PMID]
[8] Abdel-Daim MM, Abdeen A. Protective effects of rosuvastatin and vitamin E against fipronil-mediated oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver and kidney. Food and chemical toxicology. 2018 Apr 1;114:69-77. [10.1016/j.fct.2018.01.055] [PMID]
[9] Costa G, Serra M, Maccioni R, Casu MA, Kasture SB, Acquas E, Morelli M. Withania somnifera influences MDMA-induced hyperthermic, cognitive, neurotoxic and neuroinflammatory effects in mice. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2023 May 1;161:114475. [10.1016/j.biopha.2023.114475] [PMID]
[10] Karami M, Nokabadi FK, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Naghshvar F. Nephroprotective effects of Feijoa Sellowiana leaves extract on renal injury induced by acute dose of ecstasy (MDMA) in mice. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences. 2014 Jan;17(1):69. [Link] [PMID]
[11] Xiao Z, Zhang J, Peng X, Dong Y, Jia L, Li H, Du J. The Notch γ-secretase inhibitor ameliorates kidney fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway activation. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2014 Oct 1;55:65-71. [10.1016/j.biocel.2014.08.009] [PMID]
[12] Costa G and Gołembiowska K. Costa G, Gołembiowska K. Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms. Experimental Neurology. 2022 Jan 1;347:113894. [10.1016/j. expneurol.2021.113894] [PMID]
[13] Vizeli P, Schmid Y, Prestin K, Zu Schwabedissen HE, Liechti ME.
Pharmacogenetics of ecstasy: CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 polymorphisms moderate pharmacokinetics of MDMA in healthy subjects. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Mar 1;27(3):232-8. [10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.01.008 ] [PMID]
[14] Bora F, Yılmaz F, Bora T. Ecstasy (MDMA) and its effects on kidneys and their treatment: a review. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2016 Nov;19(11):1151. [Link] [PMID]
[15] Samuel HU, Balasubramaniyan T, Thirumavalavan S, Vasudevan C, Kumar RS, Murugesan V, Abraham A. Rhabdomyolysis with myoglobin-induced acute kidney injury: A case series of four cases. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2021 Apr 1;64(2):382-4. [10.4103/IJPM. IJPM_89_20 ] [PMID]
[16] Petejova N, Martinek A. Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis and renal replacement therapy: a critical review. Critical Care. 2014 Jun;18(3):1-8. [10.1186/cc13897] [PMID]
[17] Van de Blaak FL, Dumont GJ. Serotonin transporter availability, neurocognitive function and their correlation in abstinent 3, 4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine users. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. 2022 Jan;37(1):e2811. [10.1002/hup.2811] [PMID]
[18] Aburahma A, Rana S, Larsen R, Ward CS, Sprague JE. Influence of adrenalectomy on the gut microbiome and MDMA-induced hyperthermia. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2023 Apr 15;945:175643. [10.1016/j.ejphar.2023.175643] [PMID]
[19] Taghizadeh G, Mehdizadeh H, Pourahmad J, Foroumadi A, Hassani S, Halvaei Khankahdani Z, Noruzi M, Behmadi H, Lavasani H, Rouini MR, Sharifzadeh M. Bucladesine attenuates spatial learning and hippocampal mitochondrial impairments induced by 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Neurotoxicity Research. 2020 Jun;38:38-49. [10.1007/s12640-020-00183-3] [PMID]
[20] Abo-Elmaaty AM, Behairy A, El-Naseery NI, Abdel-Daim MM. The protective efficacy of vitamin E and cod liver oil against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020 Dec;27:44412-26. [10.1007/s11356-020-10351-9] [PMID