Evaluation of TG-43U1 in miniature X-ray tubes used in electronic brachytherapy through Monte Carlo simulation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Radiology technology, Shushtar School of Medical Sciences, Shushtar, Iran

2 Department of occupational health, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran

3 Professor of Medical Physics.Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University, Ahvaz, Iran.

4 Associate Professor of Medical Physics,Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University, Ahvaz, Iran.

5 Assistant Professor of Radiology Technology.Department of Radiology technology, Shoushtar School of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran.

6 Masters Student of Medical Physics.Department of Medical Physics, Sadoughi University of Medical Physics, Yazd, Iran.


Background and purpose: The first formulation of AAPMTG-43 was presented for the sources with apparent activities in 1995. in 2004, the converted formulation was used to calculate the dose of Nucleoid brachytherapy sources. Subsequently, the formulation for miniature x-ray tubes called TG-43U1 protocol was exploited along with two requirements: normalizing the air-kerma strength and the active length of miniature x-ray tubes limiting to zero. On the basis of the geological structure of miniature x-ray tubes and the capabilities of the monte carlo code, it has been required that TG-43U1 protocol for miniature x-ray tubes is evaluated using this code.
method: the quantities sk ، Λ ، g(r) and F (r, θ) for energies 40, 45, and 50 kilo electron volt are evaluated through simulation of hemispherical and hemispherical-conical tubes and MCNPX (2.6.0) code.
Findings: after running the monte carlo code, the numerical values of air-kerma strength, Dose rate constant, Radial dose function and anisotropy dose function are presented in the form of tables and figures.
Conclusion: a nice agreement is reached among the results of hemispherical miniature x-ray tubes and the applicable tubes in AXXent system along with hemispherical-conical miniature x-ray tubes and the one used in Intrabeam system with application of TG-43U1 protocol.


1-Reynoso FJ. Design of an ytterbium-169 brachytherapy source for gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy: Georgia Institute of Technology; 2014.
2-Raisali G, Mokhles G, Khodadadi R, Piroozfar B. Determination of dosimetry parameters for low energy brachytherapy sources based on TG-43U1 protocol using different MCNP tallies. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. 2006:29-36.
3-Thomadsen B BP, DeWerd L, II C, Chiu-Tsao S, Gossman M, et al. Model Regulations for Electronic Brachytherapy. American Association of Physicists in Medicine, One Physics Ellipse. 2009.
4-Safigholi H, Faghihi R, Jashni SK, Meigooni AS. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x‐ray sources based on TG‐43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Medical physics. 2012;39(4):1971-9.
5-Rivard MJ, Davis SD, DeWerd LA, Rusch TW, Axelrod S. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X‐Ray Source: An electronic brachytherapy source a. Medical physics. 2006;33(11):4020-32.
6-Zoubair M, El Bardouni T, Allaoui O, Boulaich Y, El Bakkari B, El Younoussi C, et al. Computing efficiency improvement in Monte Carlo simulation of a 12 MV Photon beam medical LINAC. 2013.
7-Ntlamele S. Dosimetry of the Teflon encased strontium eye applicator: University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus); 2010.
8-Tirao G, Quintana C, Malano F, Valente M. X‐ray spectra by means of Monte Carlo simulations for imaging applications. X‐Ray Spectrometry. 2010;39(6):376-83.
9-Llovet X, Sorbier L, Campos C, Acosta E, Salvat F. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra generated by kilo-electron-volt electrons. Journal of applied physics. 2003;93(7):3844-51.
10-Ihsan A, Heo SH, Cho SO. Optimization of X-ray target parameters for a high-brightness microfocus X-ray tube. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2007;264(2):371-7.
11-Mehranian A, Ay M, Alam NR, Zaidi H, editors. Quantitative assessment of the effect of anode surface roughness on diagnostic X-ray spectra: A Monte Carlo simulation study. 2009 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (NSS/MIC); 2009: IEEE.
12-Poludniowski G, Landry G, DeBlois F, Evans P, Verhaegen F. SpekCalc: a program to calculate photon spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes. Physics in Medicine & Biology. 2009;54(19):N433.
13-Grant EJ, Posada CM, Castaño CH, Lee HK, editors. Electron field emission Particle-In-Cell (PIC) coupled with MCNPX simulation of a CNT-based flat-panel x-ray source. Medical Imaging 2011: Physics of Medical Imaging; 2011: International Society for Optics and Photonics.
14-Sofiienko A, Jarvis C, Voll Å. Electron range evaluation and X-ray conversion optimization in tungsten transmission-type targets with the aid of wide electron beam Monte Carlo simulations.
15-Mercier J, Kopp D, McDavid W, Dove S, Lancaster JL, Tucker D. Modification and benchmarking of MCNP for low‐energy tungsten spectra. Medical physics. 2000;27(12):2680-7.
16-Barati B, Zabihzadeh M, Birgani MT, Chegini N, Fatahiasl J, Mirr I. Evaluation of the Effect of Source Geometry on the Output of Miniature X-ray Tube for Electronic Brachytherapy through Simulation. Journal of biomedical physics & engineering. 2018;8(1):29.
17-Barati B, Zabihzadeh M, Birgani MJT, Chegini N, Ghahfarokhi MH, Fatahiasl J. Assessment of two hemispherical and hemispherical-conical miniature sources used in electronic brachytherapy using Monte Carlo Simulation. Electronic physician. 2017;9(2):3845.
18-Sadeghi M, Saidi P, Tenreiro C. Dosimetric characteristics of the brachytherapy sources based on Monte Carlo method. Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, Medicine and Other Fields of Science InTech. 2011:p155-76.
19-Herrera R. MCNP5 Monte Carlo based dosimetry for the nucletron iridium-192 high dose-rate brachytherapy source with tissue heterogeneity corrections: Florida Atlantic University; 2012.
20-Nath R, Anderson LL, Luxton G, Weaver KA, Williamson JF, Meigooni AS. Dosimetry of interstitial brachytherapy sources: recommendations of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 43. Medical physics. 1995;22(2):209-34.
21-Poon ES. Patient-specific dose calculation methods for high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy: McGill University; 2009.