1-Brockman D. Forward head posture. Chiropractic. 2003;4:13-7.
2-Griegel-Morris P, Larson K, Mueller-Klaus K, Oatis CA. Incidence of common postural abnormalities in the cervical, shoulder, and thoracic regions and their association with pain in two age groups of healthy subjects. Physical therapy. 1992;72(6):425-31.
3-Williams R. Heads up on more reason your back hurts. Sports Medicine, November/December. 2006;8(2):119-22.
4-Larsen BT. Muscles: Testing and function with posture and pain. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2005;37(8):1447.
5-Yip CHT, Chiu TTW, Poon ATK. The relationship between head posture and severity and disability of patients with neck pain. Manual therapy. 2008;13(2):148-54.
6-Singla D, Veqar Z. Association Between Forward Head, Rounded Shoulders, and Increased Thoracic Kyphosis: A Review of the Literature. Journal of chiropractic medicine. 2017;16(3):220-9.
7-Lynch SS, Thigpen CA, Mihalik JP, Prentice WE, Padua D. The effects of an exercise intervention on forward head and rounded shoulder postures in elite swimmers. British journal of sports medicine. 2010;44(5):376-81.
8-Fernández‐de‐las‐Peñas C, Cuadrado M, Pareja J. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(9):1061-70.
9-Kang J-H, Park R-Y, Lee S-J, Kim J-Y, Yoon S-R, Jung K-I. The effect of the forward head posture on postural balance in long time computer based worker. Annals of rehabilitation medicine. 2012;36(1):98-104.
10-Winter DA. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.
11-De Felício CM, Mapelli A, Sidequersky FV, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles EMG in patients with short lasting TMD of mild-moderate severity. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2013;23(3):627-33.
12-Lauriti L, Motta LJ, de Godoy CHL, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA, Politti F, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, et al. Influence of temporomandibular disorder on temporal and masseter muscles and occlusal contacts in adolescents: an electromyographic study. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2014;15(1):123.
13-Lauriti L, da Costa Silva PF, Politti F, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA, Fernandes KPS, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, et al. Pattern of electromyographic activity in mastication muscles of adolescents with temporomandibular disorder. Journal of physical therapy science. 2013;25(10):1303-7.
14-De Felício CM, Ferreira CLP, Medeiros APM, Da Silva MAMR, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Electromyographic indices, orofacial myofunctional status and temporomandibular disorders severity: a correlation study. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2012;22(2):266-72.
15-De Luca CJ. The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. Journal of applied biomechanics. 1997;13(2):135-63.
16-Farina D, Mesin L, Martina S, Merletti R. A surface EMG generation model with multilayer cylindrical description of the volume conductor. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2004;51(3):415-26.
17-Hamm TM, Roscoe DD, Reinking RM, Stuart DG. Detection of synchrony in the discharge of a population of neurons. I. Development of a synchronization index. Journal of neuroscience methods. 1985;13(1):37-50.
18-Baker SN, Lemon RN. Non-linear summation of responses in averages of rectified EMG. Journal of neuroscience methods. 1995;59(2):175-81.
19-Farina D, Cescon C, Negro F, Enoka RM. Amplitude cancellation of motor-unit action potentials in the surface electromyogram can be estimated with spike-triggered averaging. Journal of neurophysiology. 2008;100(1)431-40.
20-Keenan KG, Farina D, Merletti R, Enoka RM. Amplitude cancellation reduces the size of motor unit potentials averaged from the surface EMG. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006;100(6):1928-37.
21-Solomonow M, Baten C, Smit J, Baratta R, Hermens H, D'Ambrosia R, et al. Electromyogram power spectra frequencies associated with motor unit recruitment strategies. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1990;68(3):1177-85.
22-Wakeling JM, Rozitis AI. Spectral properties of myoelectric signals from different motor units in the leg extensor muscles. J Exp Biol. 2004;207(14):2519-28.
23-Kupa E, Roy S, Kandarian S, De Luca C. Effects of muscle fiber type and size on EMG median frequency and conduction velocity. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1995;79(1):23-32.
24-Larsson B, Kadi F, Lindvall B, Gerdle B. Surface electromyography and peak torque of repetitive maximum isokinetic plantar flexions in relation to aspects of muscle morphology. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology. 2006;16(3):281-90.
25-Bilodeau M, Goulet C, Nadeau S, Arsenault AB, Gravel D. Comparison of the EMG power spectrum of the human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1994;68(5):395-401.
26-Stulen FB, De Luca CJ. Frequency parameters of the myoelectric signal as a measure of muscle conduction velocity. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 1981 (7):515-23.
27-Cardozo AC, Gonçalves M, Dolan P. Back extensor muscle fatigue at submaximal workloads assessed using frequency banding of the electromyographic signal. Clinical biomechanics. 2011;26(10):971-6.
28-Dolan P, Mannion A, Adams M. Fatigue of the Erector Spinae Muscles: A Quantitative Assessment Using" Frequency Banding" of the Surface Electromyography Signal. Spine. 1995;20(2):149-59.
29-Ferrari D, Kuriki HU, Silva CR, Alves N, de Azevedo FM. Diagnostic accuracy of the electromyography parameters associated with anterior knee pain in the diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2014;95(8):1521-6.
30-Kwon M, Baweja HS, Christou EA. Ankle variability is amplified in older adults due to lower EMG power from 30–60Hz. Human movement science. 2012;31(6):1366-78.
31-Neto OP, Baweja HS, Christou EA. Increased voluntary drive is associated with changes in common oscillations from 13 to 60 Hz of interference but not rectified electromyography. Muscle & nerve. 2010;42(3):348-54.
32-Roman-Liu D, Konarska M. Characteristics of power spectrum density function of EMG during muscle contraction below 30% MVC. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2009;19(5):864-74.
33-Ravier P, Buttelli O, Jennane R, Couratier P. An EMG fractal indicator having different sensitivities to changes in force and muscle fatigue during voluntary static muscle contractions. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2005;15(2):210-21.
34-Sung PS. Multifidi muscles median frequency before and after spinal stabilization exercises. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2003;84)9):1313-18.
35-Sbriccoli P, Bazzucchi I, Rosponi Aea, Bernardi M, De Vito G, Felici F. Amplitude and spectral characteristics of biceps Brachii sEMG depend upon speed of isometric force generation. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2003;13(2):139-147.
36-Bokaee F, Rezasoltani A, Manshadi FD, Naimi SS, Baghban AA, Azimi H. Comparison of cervical muscle thickness between asymptomatic women with and without forward head posture. Brazilian journal of physical therapy. 2017;21(3):206-11.
37-Weon J-H, Oh J-S, Cynn H-S, Kim Y-W, Kwon O-Y, Yi C-H. Influence of forward head posture on scapular upward rotators during isometric shoulder flexion. Journal of Bodywork and movement therapies. 2010;14(4):367-74.
38-Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007;39(2):175-91.
39-Salahzadeh Z, Maroufi N, Ahmadi A, Behtash H, Razmjoo A, Gohari M, et al. Assessment of forward head posture in females: observational and photogrammetry methods. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2014;27(2):131-9.
40-Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2009;2(1):35.
41-Falla D, Jull G, Hodges P. Feedforward activity of the cervical flexor muscles during voluntary arm movements is delayed in chronic neck pain. Experimental brain research. 2009;16(1):43-53.
42-Hermens HJ, Hutten MM. Muscle activation in chronic pain: its treatment using a new approach of myofeedback. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 2002;30(4):325-36.
43-Silva AG, Punt TD, Sharples P, Vilas-Boas JP, Johnson MI. Head posture assessment for patients with neck pain: Is it useful? International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. 2009;16(1):43-53.
44-McLean L. The effect of postural correction on muscle activation amplitudes recorded from the cervicobrachial region. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2005;15(6):527-35.
45-Sluiter JK, Rest KM, Frings-Dresen MH. Criteria document for evaluating the work-relatedness of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 2001:1-102.
46-Neumann DA. Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system: Foundations for physical rehabilitation. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Inc; 2002.
47-Gadotti IC. Measurement properties of the sagittal craniocervical posture photogrammetry. 2010.
48-Patwardhan AG, Havey RM, Khayatzadeh S, Muriuki MG, Voronov LI, Carandang G, et al. Postural consequences of cervical sagittal imbalance: a novel laboratory model. Spine. 2015;40(11):783-92.
49-Bakhtiary A, Hajihasani A, Hedaiati R, Aminianfar A. Investigation on the effect of stabilizer exercises on the forward head posture correction. Ann Mil Health Sci Res. 2012;10(2):111-7.
50-Wilke H-J, Wolf S, Claes LE, Arand M, Wiesend A. Stability Increase of the Lumbar Spine With Different Muscle Groups: A Biomechanical In Vitro Study. Spine. 1995;20(2):192-7.
51-Park H-C, Kim Y-S, Seok S-H, Lee S-K. The effect of complex training on the children with all of the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2014;10(3):172.
52-Veiersted KB, Westgaard RH, Andersen P. Electromyographic evaluation of muscular work pattern as a predictor of trapezius myalgia. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. 1993:284-90.
53-Waersted M, Bjørklund R, Westgaard R. Shoulder muscle tension induced by two VDU-based tasks of different complexity. Ergonomics. 1991;34(2):137-50.
54-Veiersted K, Westgaard R, Andersen P. Pattern of muscle activity during stereotyped work and its relation to muscle pain. International archives of occupational and environmental health. 1990;62(1):31-41.
55-Kent BE. Functional anatomy of the shoulder complex. A review. Physical therapy. 1971;51(8):947.
56-Diab AA. The role of forward head correction in management of adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation. 2012;26(12):1123-32.
57-Ledin T, Hafström A, Fransson P-A, Magnusson M. Influence of neck proprioception on vibration-induced postural sway. Acta oto-laryngologica. 2003;123(5):594-9.
58-Karnath H, Konczak J, Dichgans J. Effect of prolonged neck muscle vibration on lateral head tilt in severe spasmodic torticollis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2000;69(5):658-60.
59-Javanshir K, Mohseni M, Amiri M, Rezasoltani A, Rahgozar M. The comparison of muscle dimensions longuscolli by ultrasonography in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain and healthy individuals. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci. 2010;12(1):33-7.
60-Fuentes JP, Armijo Olivo S, Magee DJ, Gross DP. Effectiveness of interferential current therapy in the management of musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical therapy. 2016;90(9):1219-38.
61-Troiano A, Naddeo F, Sosso E, Camarota G, Merletti R, Mesin L. Assessment of force and fatigue in isometric contractions of the upper trapezius muscle by surface EMG signal and perceived exertion scale. Gait & posture. 2008;28(2):179-86.
62-Hagberg C, Hagberg M. Surface EMG amplitude and frequency dependence on exerted force for the upper trapezius muscle: a comparison between right and left sides. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 1989;58(6):641-5.
63-Hartgens F, Van Straaten H, Fideldij S, Rietjens G, Keizer H, Kuipers H. Misuse of androgenic-anabolic steroids and human deltoid muscle fibers: differences between polydrug regimens and single drug administration. European journal of applied physiology. 2002;86(3):233-9.
64-Kaiser E, Petersen I. Frequency analysis of muscle action potentials during tetanic contraction. Electromyography. 1962;3:5-17.
65-Petrofsky JS, Lind AR. Frequency analysis of the surface electromyogram during sustained isometric contractions. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 2004;51(2):325-32.
66-Lindstrom L. Muscular fatigue and action potential conduction velocity changes studied with frequency analysis of EMG signals. Electromyography. 1970;10(4):341-56.
67-Goldstein EA, Heaton JT, Kobler JB, Stanley GB, Hillman RE. Design and implementation of a hands-free electrolarynx device controlled by neck strap muscle electromyographic activity. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2004;51(2):325-32.