1-Beaulieu P, Lussier D, Porreca F, Dickenson A. International Association for the Study of Pain. Pharmacology of pain. Seattle: IASP Press; 2010.
2-Laccetti MS, Kazanowski MK. Pain management. 2nd ed. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2008.
3-Maigne R, Nieves WL. Diagnosis and treatment of pain of vertebral origin : a manual medicine approach. 1st ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1996.
4-Knotkova H, Cruciani R, Merrick J. Pain : brain stimulation in the treatment of pain. Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers; 2010.
5-Melzack R, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Patterns of pain [video recording]. Ottawa: The Corporation; 1977.
6-Von Roenn JH, Paice JA, Preodor ME, eds. Current diagnosis & treatment of pain. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill Medical Pub. Division; 2006.
7-Lotz JC. Animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration: lessons learned. Spine 2004;29(23):2742-50.
8-Chrubasik S, Roufogalis BD, eds. Herbal medicinal products for the treatment of pain. Lismore: Southern Cross University; 2000.
9-Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, Jamous RM. Herbal preparation use by patients suffering from cancer in Palestine. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2011;17(4):235-40.
10-Afifi FU, Abu-Irmaileh B. Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on less commonly used medicinal herbs. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72(1–2):101-10.
11-Hanlidou E, Karousou R, Kleftoyanni V, Kokkini S. The herbal market of Thessaloniki (N Greece) and its relation to the ethnobotanical tradition. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91(2–3):281-99.
12-Sun P. The treatment of pain with Chinese herbs and acupuncture. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2002.
13-Cakici I, Ulug HY, Inci S, Tunçtan B, Abacioglu N, Kanzik I, et al. Antinociceptive effect of some amaryllidaceae plants in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49(8):828-30.
14-Jones GV, Davis RE. Climate influences on grapevine phenology, grape composition, and wine production and quality for Bordeaux, France. Am J Enol Viticult 2000;51(3):249-61.
15-Fuleki T, Ricardo da Silva JM. Catechin and procyanidin composition of seeds from grape cultivars grown in Ontario. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45(4):1156-60.
16-Fangshi H Y Li, Nanjing J. Study on the Extraction of Main Constituents from Grape. Chemical Industry Times 2004.
17-Yilmaz Y, Toledo RT. Health aspects of functional grape seed constituents. Trends Food Sci Tech 2004;15(9):422-33.
18-Yarnell E. Plant Chemistry in Veterinary Medicine: Medicinal Constituents and Their Mechanisms of Action. In: Wynn SG, Fougère B, eds. Veterinary Herbal Medicine. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2007. p. 159-82.
19-Yilmaz Y, Toledo RT. Major flavonoids in grape seeds and skins: antioxidant capacity of catechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(2):255-60.
20-Koga T, Moro K, Nakamori K, Yamakoshi J, Hosoyama H, Kataoka S, et al. Increase of antioxidative potential of rat plasma by oral administration of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47(5):1892-7.
21-Agarwal C, Sharma Y, Agarwal R. Anticarcinogenic effect of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: modulation of mitogenic signaling and cell‐cycle regulators and induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis. Mol Carcinog 2000;28(3):129-38.
22-Karthikeyan K, Bai BR, Devaraj SN. Cardioprotective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats. Int J Cardiol 2007;115(3):326-33.
23-Zern TL, Wood RJ, Greene C, West KL, Liu Y, Aggarwal D, et al. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre-and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr 2005;135(8):1911-7.
24-Şehirli O, Ozel Y, Dulundu E, Topaloglu U, Ercan F, Şener G. Grape seed extract treatment reduces hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats. Phytother Res 2008;22(1):43-8.
25-Cheng M, Gao HQ, Xu L, Li BY, Zhang H, Li XH. Cardioprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts in streptozocin induced diabetic rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007;50(5):503-9.
26-Fujii H, Yokozawa T, Kim YA, Tohda C, Nonaka G. Protective effect of grape seed polyphenols against high glucose-induced oxidative stress. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006;70(9): 2104-11.
27-Torres JL, Varela B, García MT, Carilla J, Matito C, Centelles JJ, et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50(26):7548-55.
28-Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem 2001;73(1):285-90.
29-Spayd SE, Andersen-Bagge J. Free amino acid composition of grape juice from 12 Vitis vinifera cultivars in Washington. Am J Enol Viticult 1996;47(4):389-402.
30-Sánchez-Moreno C, A Larrauri J, Saura-Calixto F. Free radical scavenging capacity and inhibition of lipid oxidation of wines, grape juices and related polyphenolic constituents. Food Res Int 1999;32(6):407-12.
31-Hemmati AA, Nazari Z, Hasanvand N, Aghel N, Mohammadian B. Protective Effect of Grape Seed Extract against the Fibrogenic Effect of Bleomycin in Rat Lung. Iran J Pharmaceut Sci 2006;2(3):143-50.
32-El-Alfy AT, Ahmed AA, Fatani AJ. Protective effect of red grape seeds proanthocyanidins against induction of diabetes by alloxan in rats. Pharmacol Res 2005;52(3):264-70.
33-Katiyar SK. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008;52(S1):S71-6.
34-Mokhtari M, Sarkaki A, Sharifi E, Basiryan E. Antinociceptive Effects of Grape Seed Oil with Use of Formalin Test in Male Rats. International Conference on Food Engineering and Biotechnology. Singapoore .2011.IACSIT Press, Vol.9: 48-53.