مقایسۀ اثربخشی آموزش تکنیک‌های شناختی-رفتاری و آموزش طرحواره محور بر تعدیل علایم ترومای ثانویه در همسران جانبازان مبتلا به اختلال استرس پس از آسیب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد روانشناسی‌ بالینی. گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، رودهن، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی.گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، رودهن، ایران.

3 کارشناس‌ارشد روانشناسی‌ بالینی.گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، رودهن، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه وهدف: وضعیت روانی و جسمانی جانبازان مبتلا به PTSD ممکن است بر سلامت روان همسران آنان اثر بگذارد. ترومای ثانویه یک سندرم شایع در همسران جانبازان به ویژه جانبازان مبتلا به PTSD است و درمان و پیشگیری از آن می­تواند به بهبود وضعیت همسران و خانواده آنان کمک کند. هدف از این پژوهش مقایسۀ آموزش تکنیک­های شناختی_رفتاری و آموزش طرحواره محور بر تعدیل علایم ترومای ثانویه در همسران جانبازان مبتلا به  PTSD بود.
روش بررسی: پژوهش حاضر یک کارآزمایی بالینی از نوع پیش­آزمون_­ پس­آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعۀ آماری پژوهش شامل همسران جانبازان مبتلا به PTSD  مراجعه­کننده به بیمارستان روان­پزشکی صدر تهران بود. برای انتخاب نمونه ابتدا غربالگری صورت گرفت و همسرانی که نمرۀ بالایی (حداقل 38) در ترومای ثانونه داشتند، انتخاب شدند و سپس به تصادف در دو گروه آزمایش و یک گروه کنترل جایگزین شدند (در هر گروه 11 نفر). در این پژوهش از پرسشنامه ترومای ثانویه (STSS) استفاده شد. داده­ها با روش آماری مانکووا (MANCOVA) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند.
یافته­ها: نتایج نشان داد که هر دو روش آموزش طرحواره محور و آموزش تکنیک­های شناختی رفتاری منجر به کاهش علایم ترومای ثانویه و مؤلفه­های آن (مزاحمت، اجتناب و برانگیختگی) در همسران جانبازان مبتلا به PTSD شده­اند (05/0>P) و هر دو روش در کاهش علایم ترومای اثربخش هستند.
نتیجه­گیری: با توجه به نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش، دو روش آموزش راهبردهای شناختی_رفتاری، و آموزش متمرکز بر طرحواره موجب تعدیل علایم ترومای ثانویه و مؤلفه­های آن (برانگیختگی، مزاحمت و اجتناب) می­شوند و استفاده از هر دو روش به روان­شناسان و درمانگران توصیه می­شود.

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