سم ریسین: مکانیسم سمیت، روش های تشخیص، درمان و ایمنی زائی علیه آن

نوع مقاله: مروری

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات زیست شناسی، دانشکده و پژوهشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه امام حسین (ع)، تهران، ایران

2 پژوهشکده فناوری زیستی، دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر، تهران، ایران

3 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد آبادان، آبادان، ایران

چکیده

سم ریسین یک گلیکوپروتئین هترودایمر دارای اتصال دی سولفید متشکل از زنجیره سمیA  و زنجیره B متصل به سلول می باشد که بواسطه غیرفعال­کردن برگشت­ناپذیر ریبوزوم­های یوکاریوتی از طویل شدن زنجیره پلی­پپتیدی جلوگیری می­کند و در نهایت باعث مرگ سلول می­شود. این سم از دانه­های گیاه کرچک استخراج می شود و 5-1درصد از وزن دانه خشک را شامل می­شود. ریسین یکی از عوامل نگران کننده در دفاع بیولوژیک می باشد بعلت اینکه به آسانی توسط گروه­ها و اشخاص با تکنیک­هایی با تخصص کم و بودجه پایین قابل تهیه است و منبع آن بصورت علف هرز و یا محصول کشت شده در همه کشورها وجود دارد. با توجه به اینکه ریسین به راحتی در بدن انتشار می­یابد توسط CDC (مراکز کنترل و پیشگیری از بیماری های آمریکا) به عنوان یک تهدید زیستی کلاس B طبقه­بندی شده است. تحقیقات مختلفی برای تشخیص، درمان و ساخت یک واکسن مناسب بر علیه این عامل صورت پذیرفته است. جهت تشخیص مسمومیت ریسین در نمونه­های بالینی، از روش­های ایمونولوژیکی برای غربالگری و از تلفیق روش­های کروماتوگرافی و طیف سنجی جرمی برای تائید مسمومیت استفاده می­شود. در حال حاضر هیچ درمان ویژه ای برای مسمومیت با ریسین در دسترس نمی­باشد اما دو واکسن که شباهت زیادی با زیر واحد A سم دارند، شامل RiVax و RVEc، در حال توسعه هستند. هدف از این مطالعه معرفی سم ریسین، روش­های تشخیص، درمان و کاندیدهای جدید واکسنی آن می­باشد.

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